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ALERT : SSC CHSL 2017 Exam Date Extended.

ALERT : SSC CHSL 2017 Exam Date Extended.

Combined Higher Secondary Level (10+2) Examination, 2017

Due to Heavy Server Load and Aspirants complaints SSC has extended the closing date for filling up of online application forms for
CHSL (10+2) Exam, 2017 from 20.12. 2017 to 27.12.2017 (till 5.00 P.M.)


Study Materials for SSC CHSL (10+2) Exam 2017 

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 33

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 33

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. Gauss’s law due to different charge distribution is used to calculate----

A. electric field
B. electric charge
C. electric intensity
D. electric field lines

2. Field lines parallel to sides of a box will have flux that is----

A. 1
B. min
C. 0
D. max

3. Law stated as flux is 1/Eo times total charge is----

A. ohms law
B. newton’s law
C. gauss’s law
D. coulombs law

4. A body at rest or moving with uniform velocity will have acceleration----

A. 1
B. 0
C. min
D. max

5. To satisfy first condition of equilibrium, if rightward forces are positive, leftward forces must be----

A. positive
B. negative
C. doubled
D. halved

6. If a body is in rest or in uniform velocity, it is said to be in----

A. rest
B. uniform motion
C. equilibrium
D. constant force

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

SSC Courses and Programs: 

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 33

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 33

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. The Directive Principles in the Constitution are meant to----

(a) place the Constitution an instrument of social change
(b) place a curb on the authoritarian attitude of the executive
(c) strengthen the judiciary
(d) establi sh the supremacy of the Constitution

2. Ideals of a welfare state are contained in:

(a) the Directive Principles of State Policy
(b) the Preamble of the Constitution
(c) the VII Schedule to the Constitution
(d) the Fundamental Rights Chapter

3. Which part of the Constitution speaks of economic and social ideals which are non-justiciable?

(a) Fundamental Rights
(b) Directive Principles of State Policy
(c) Preamble
(d) Fundamental Duties

4. Which one of the following rights was described by B.R. Ambedker as the heart and soul of the constitution----

(a) Right to freedom of religion
(b) Right to property
(c) Right to equality
(d) Right to constitutional remedies.

5. The number of judges which a state High Court should have decided by----

(a) the Governor
(b) The president of India
(c) The parliament
(d) The State Legislature

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Types Of Vitamins)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Types Of Vitamins)


  • Important in digestion, transportation, excretion and to regulate body temperature (body contains 65% water).


  • Fibrous material present in the cell wall of plants.
  • Mainly contains cellulose.
  • It doesn’t provide energy but only helps in retaining water in the body.
  • One of the common source is Daliya, which we eat in our homes.
  • Blood is a fluid connective tissue.
  • Its quantity is 6.8 litres in man and 500 ml less in woman.
  • Constitutes 6-8% of body weight and has a pH of 7.4.

Blood Cells

They are of 3 types

Red Blood Corpuscles (Rbcs)

  • Also called erythrocytes, disc-shaped, no nucleus, contains a pigment called Haemoglobin, which gives blood its red color and transports oxygen and carbon di oxide.
  • Manufactured in Red Bone marr
  • Life is of 120 days.
  • No. of RBCs is 4.5-5 million/cubic mm. of blood.

White Blood Corpuscles (WBCs)

  • Also called leucocytes, rounded, with a nucleus and far less numerous than RBCs (8,000 per cubic mm. of blood).
  • Manufactured in Red Bone marrow.
  • Act as the soldiers of body’s defence system.


  • Also called thrombocytes and are about 2,50,000 per cubic mm. of blood.
  • Manufactured in Red Bone marrow.
  • Help the blood to clot.

Blood Groupings

  • Father of Blood Grouping: Karl Landsteiner.
  • He discovered A, B and 0 blood groups.
  • Decastello and Sturle discovered AB blood group.

Blood Group                 Can donate to                          Can receive from
A A,                             AB A,                                         O
B B,                             AB B,                                          O
AB AB A,                    B,                                                AB, O
O                                 A, B,                                            AB, O O

RH Factor

  • It is a blood antigen found in RBC.
  • A person can be Rh+ or Rh– depending upon the presence of Rh factor in RBC.
  • Avery important point is Rh+ can receive blood from both Rh+ and Rh– but Rh– can receive blood from Rh– only.
  • In world population, Rh+ are 85% and Rh- are 15%.
  • Blood transfusion technique was developed by James Blundell.

Nervous System

  • The nerves, the brain and the spinal cord constitute the nervous system.

  • Nervous system controls and regulates the activities of all the other systems of the body.


  • Brain is the main organ of the nervous system. It consists of cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata.


  • It controls the voluntary actions and is the seat of intelligence.

  • Its outer grey matter is the most important part.


  • It is concerned with equilibrium of the body and co-ordination of muscles.

Medulla Oblongata

  • Lowest part of the brain and is connected with the spinal cord.

  • It controls the involuntary actions..

Reflex Action

  • It can be defined as the spontaneous response to the external stimuli.

  • It is not co-ordinated by the brain but by the spinal cord.

Sense Organs

  • There are several organs in the body that receive the external and internal stimuli and convey it to the brain and spinal cord.

  • The main sense organs are Eye, Ear, Skin, Tongue, Nose, etc.

Digestive System

  • Digestion involves splitting of food molecules by hydrolysis into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract.

  • Man and other animals have holozoic nutrition (i.e. take solid form of food).

  • Digestion process takes place in following five steps

(i) Ingestion of food
(ii) Digestion of food
(iii) Absorption of digested food
(iv) Assimilation
(v) Egestion of unwanted food

Ingestion of Food

  • Food is taken through mouth cavity.

  • It is masticated by teeth and swallowed.

  • Ingestion takes place in buccal cavity.

  • Salivary glands lubricate the food and binds the food particles together to form bolus.

  • Salivery gland have starch splitting enzyme ptyalin.

Digestion of Food

  • Process of converting complex, insoluble, food particles into simple solube and absorbable form is called digestion.

  • In mouth, salivary amylase acts on starch.
    Starch Maltose
    Complexform Simpleform

Digestion in Stomach

  • The food passes down through the oesophagus into stomach.

  • Now food is mixed with gastric juice and hydrochloric acid which disinfects the food and creates acidic medium.

  • Pepsin digests proteins and converts them into peptones.

  • Renin converts milk to curd.

  • Digested food now is called chyme.

Digestion in Small Intestine

  • Chyme moves to duodenum.

  • Food is mixed with bile (liver) to breakdown fats into smaller globules.

  • Trypsin acts upon proteins and breaks them into peptides.

  • Amylase converts starch into simple sugar.

  • Lipase converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

  • Food passes into ileum and mixes with intestinal juice.

  • Maltase converts maltose into glucos

  • Lactase converts lactose into glucose.

  • Sucrase converts sucrose into glucose.

  • Trypsin digests the peptides into amino acids.

  • Food now is called chyle.

Absorption and Assimilation of Digested Food

  • Ileum’s internal surface has finger-like folds called villi.

  • There is a dense network of blood capillaries and lymph capillaries in each villus.

  • It helps in absorption of food.

Egestion of Unwanted Food

  • Digested food passes into large intestine.

  • Large intestine cannot absorb food, but absorbs much of the water.

  • The remaining semi solid waste is called faeces and is passed into rectum.

  • It is expelled out through anus.


  • There are 32 permanent teeth in man (2123/2123 - Dental Formula).

  • These are of four types
    o Incisors : (for cutting) four in numbers.
    o Canines : (for tearing) two in numbers.
    o Premolar : (for grinding) four in numbers.
    o Molars : (for grinding) six in numbers.

  • In children, there are 20 teeth, which are temporary in nature (2120/2120 – Dental Formula).

  • In elephants the tusks are the incisors of upper jaw.

  • Maximum number of teeth are present in horse and pig.

  • Hardest part in the body is tooth enamel.

  • Main bulk of tooth is formed of dentine.

Digestion System

Gland Juice Enzyme/s  Edible Substance Products formed
Saliva, Salivary Salivary Starch Maltose (disaccharide)
glands amylase   via dextrins
Gastric juice; Pepsinogen Protein Peptones via acid metaproteins
gastric glands (inactive) +   and proteoses
chiefly of fungus HCIPepsin    
  (active) Prorennin Milk protein Milk clot in the form of calcium
  (inactive) + Caseinogen paracaseinate and whey protein
  H+Rennin   later digested by pepsin fatty
  (active)   acids and glycerol
  Lipase Light fat like cream  
Pancreatic Protein splitting    
juice trypsinogen Protein Polypeptides via metaproteins
(pancreatic (inactive) +    
acid in exocrine enterokinase    
part of pancreas) from duodenaln mucosaTrypsin Chymotrypsinogen (inactive) + trypsin ® Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Carbohydrate splitting Pancreatic amylase (amylopsin) Maltase Lactase Sucrase Fat splitting Lipase Polypeptide Starch Maltose Lactose Sucrose Fat amino acids Maltose (sugar) via dextrin Glucose + glucose Glucose + galactose Glucose + fructose Fatty acids + glycerol
Bile, Liver No enzyme; instead contains bile salts which (i) activate lipases (ii) emulsify fats - for better action of lipase (iii) render fat soluble substances water soluble    
Gland Juice Intestinal juice (succros entericus); intestinal glands Enzyme/s Protein splitting Erepsin: a group of peptidases Carbohydrate splitting Maltase Lactase Sucrase Fat splitting Lipase Edible Substance Polypeptides and short peptides Maltose Lactose Sucrose Fat Products formed Amino acids 2 molculess of glucose glucose + galactose glucose + fructose Fatty acids + glycerol

Animal Diseases, Human Diseases And Deficiency Diseases Animal Disease

Disease Pathogen Responsible
Food and mouth disease Virus
Rinderpest (cattle plague) Virus
Blue Tongue Virus (transmitted by mosquitoes)
Cow po (Vaccinia) Vaccinia Virus
Ranikhet Disease Virus
(New castle disease)  
March’s Disease Virus
(Fowl paralysis)  
Fowl plague Virus
Fowl pox Virus
(Avian diphtheria)  
Tuberculosis Bacteria (transmitted by infected milk and milk products)
Anthrax (splenic fever) Anthrax Bacillus
Black quarter (Black leg) Bacteria: Clostridium chauvoei
Mastitis Bacteria: Streptococci and Staphylococci
Johne’s Disease Bacillus paratuberculosis
Brucellosis Bacteria
(Bang’s Disease) Brucella
Salmonellosis Salmonella dublin and S. typhimurium
Foot rot Bacteria: Fusiformis nodosus
Haemorrhagic Disease Bacteria
(Bovine pasteurellosis; Pasteurella
Shipping fever; shipping Multocida
Fowl typhoid Salmonella gallinarum
Ringworm Mould (fungus) Microsporon, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton
Trichomoniasis Protozoan; Trihomonas foetus (Transmitted through coitus)
Coccidiosis protozoan: Eimeria bovis
Trypanosomiassis Protozoan: Trypanosoma congolense
Babesiosis Protozoan: Babesia bovis (Transmitted by tick)
“Snoring disease” Trematode (fluke) Schistosoma nasale
Liver rot Liver fluke Fasciola hepatica
Measly beef Tapeworm: Taenia Saginata

Human Diseases

Diseases caused by Protozoa :

Disease Affected organ Parasites Carrier Symptoms
Malaria RBC and Liver Plasmodium Female Anophelies Fever with shivering
Pyorrhoea Gums Entamoeba gingivelis - Bleeding from gums
Sleeping sickness Brain Trypanosoma Tse-Tse flies Fever with severe sleep
Diarrhoea Intestine Entamoeba Histolytica House flies Mucous and Diarrohea with blood
Kala-ajar Bone marrow Leismania donovani Sand flies High fever
Filaria - Wuchereia Culex Swelling in legs, testes and
    baoncrofti moszuitoes other parts of body

Diseases caused by Bacteria :

Disease Affected organ Name of Bacteria Symptoms
Tetanus Nervous system Clostridium tetani High fever, spasm in body, Closing of jaws etc
Cholera Intestine Vibrio cholerae Continuous stool and vomiting
Typhoid Intestine Salmonella typhosa High fever, headache
Tuberculosis Lungs Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Repeated coughing
Diphtheria Respiratory tube Corynebacterium diphtheriae Difficulty in respiration and suffocation
Plague Lungs, area between the two legs Pasteurella pesties Very high fever, muscular
Whooping cough Respiratory system Hemophilis pertusis Continuous coughing
Pneumonia Lungs Diplococcus pneumoniae High fever, swelling in lungs
Leprosy Skin leprae Nervous System affected Nervous System Spots on body, nerves
Gonorrhea Urinary Path Neisseria gonorrhoeae Swelling in urinary path.
Syphilis Urinary path Treponema pallidum Wounds in urinogenial tract

Diseases caused by Viruses :

Diseases  Affected organ Name of virus Symptoms
AIDS Defensive system (WBC) HIV Immune system of body became weak
Dengue fever Whole body particularly head, eyes and joints.   Pain in eyes, muscles, head and joints
Polio Throat, backbone nerve Pilio virus and intestine cells are destroyed. Fever, body pain, back bone
Influenza (flu) Whole body restlessness. Mixo virus Suffocation, sneezing,
Chicken pox Whole body Variola virus body. High fever, redish eruption on
Small pox Whole body Varicella virus Light fever, eruption of bile on body.
Goitre Parathyroid gland mouth with fever. - Difficulty in opening the
Measles Whole body Morbeli virus Redish eruptions on body.
Trachoma Eyes - Reddish eyes, pain in eyes.
Hepatitis Liver - Yellow urine, Eyes and skin become yellow.
Rabies Nervous system Rabies virus with sever headache & The patient becomes mad
Meningitis Brain - High fever.
Herpes Skin Herpes Swelling in skin.

Diseases caused by Fungus :

Diseases Name of fungi Symptoms
Asthama Aspergillus fumigatus Obstructs the functions of lungs.
Athlete’s foot Tenia pedes Cracking of feet
Scabies Acarus scabies White spots found on the skin
Baldness Taenia capities Hair of the head falls
Ringworm Trycophyton lerucosum Round red spot on the skin

Deficiency Diseases:

Deficiency Disease  Causes/Symptoms
A. Protein Kwashiorkor Children become irritable, cease to grow, lose weight, skin pigmented, potbelly due to retention of water by the cells (oedema), mental retardation
Protein Shortage Marasmus Muscle degeneration, thinning of limbs and abdominal wall, ribs prominent, skin pigmentation and oedema absent
B. Minerals lron deficiency Deficiency of haemoglobin in RBCs, persons look
(a) Iron anaemia pale, lose appetite and fatigue easily
(b) Potassium (k) Hypokalemia Loss of K in severe vomiting and acute diarrhoea. Rise in heart-beat rate, kidney damage, weakness and paralysis of muscles
(c) Sodium (Na) Hyponatremia Loss of Na, dehydration, low blood pressure, loss of body weight
(d) Iodine (I) Simple goitre Enlargement of thyroid due to low iodine content in drinking water
(e) Calcium (Ca) Rickets and Osteomalacia Refer vitamin D deficiency
C. Vitamins    
(a) Vitamin A (i) Xerophthalmia or ‘dry eye’ Lachrimal glands stop producing tears leading to blindness
  (ii) Dermatosis Dry and scaly skin
  (iii) Night blindness Inability to see in the dark or in dim light
(b) Vitamin    
B1 (thiamine) Beri-beri Extreme weakness, swelling and pain in the legs, loss of appetite, headache, enlarged heart and shortness of breath
B2 (riboflavin) Ariboflavinosis Blurred vision, buring and soreness of eye and tongue, cracking of skin at angle of mouth
B12 (cobalamin) Pernicious or megaloblastic anaemia Reduction in haemoglobin content due to disturbance of RBC formation in bone marrow
Niacin Pellagra Tip and lateral margins of tongue, mouth and gums become red, swollen and develop ulcers. skin red and itchy on hands, feet, elbows, wrists and knees.
(c) Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Scurvy pain in joints, loss of weight, anaemia, gums become spongy, swollen and bleed easily, teeth losses and fragile
(d) Vitamin D Rickets Occurs in children. Softness and deformities of bones bow legs and pigeon chests due to loss of bone Ca
  Osteomalacia Occurs in adults, softness and pain in bones which fracture easily, bending of vertebral column

Common Body Disorders

  • Allergy : A special reaction to a certain substance such as pollen or certain foods (causing sneeze, skin rashes, etc.) Allergy can be from any material, even by colours, etc.

  • Arthritis : Inflammation of joints.

  • Asthma : A respiratory disorder caused by narrowing of bronchial tubes. It can be caused by infection or due to allergy.

  • Bronchitis : Inflammation of bronchial tubes caused by bacteria or virus.

  • Cancer : An abnormal growth of body cells, often resulting in a malignant tumour.

  • Diabetes Mellitus : Excess sugar in the body, when the body is not able to control the level of blood sugar due to malfunctioning of Islets of Langerhans of pancreas when it produces inadequate insulin.

  • Epilepsy : Unwarned and periodic loss of consciousness along with convulsions, due to nervous disorders.

  • Mumps : An acute infection particularly in children and young adults in which there is swelling of parotid gland associated with high fever.

  • Hepatitis : Any infectious or inflammatory disease of the liver commonly identified by its primary symptoms of jaundice.

  • Hernia : A weakness of the muscle surrounding an organ allowing it to bulge through, often found in the groin.

  • Jaundice : Excesssive bilirubin (present in bile juice secreted by liver) in the blood, causes yellowing of eyes, skin and even urine.

  • Leukemia: Blood cancer.

  • Measles: A contagious disease caused by virus, red rashes appear on the body along with fever.

  • Migraine: A type of a headache followed by disturbed vision and speech accompanied by nausea.

  • Pellagra: A disease caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B4 (Niacin). Its symptoms are 3D’s: Diarrhoea, Dermatosis, Dementila

  • Osteomalacia: A disease caused by shortage of Vitamin D (calciferol) which results in softening of bones, frequent fractures and bending of the backbone.

  • Pleurisy : Inflammation of the membrane that covers the lungs and lines the chest cavity.

  • Rabies : A viral disease transmitted by the saliva of infected animals, symptoms include convulsions and repulsion to water (hydrophobia).

  • Ringworm : A skin disease causing circular swellings on the skin. Transmitted through air-borne pores and contact with infected person.

  • Slipped disc : A painful condition in which a cartilage disc in the spine is displaced putting pressure on the nearest nerve.

  • Small pox : A contagious viral disease, common among children, symptoms are rashes on skin. This disease has been eradicated from the whole world due to the efforts of WHO.

  • Thrombosis : Formation of blood clot in a blood vessel or in the heart causing death.

  • Ulcer : An inflamed open sore on the skin, or on the membrane of a body cavity. Peptic ulcer is a condition in which ulcer is there in the food pipe causing burning sensations.

Common Drugs

  • Anaesthetics : Drugs that block sensory nerves and make the patient fully unconscious to prevent him from feeling pain. In case of local anaesthesia a particular area is made senseless temporarily.

  • Analgesics : Drugs used to prevent or relieve pain like aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid).

  • Antibiotics : Drugs used to prevent growth of body germs and to destroy them as soon as possible. Most common drugs under this category are penicillin, tetramycetin, etc.

  • Antihistamines : These drugs are used to relieve symptoms of asthma, hay fever and other allergies.

  • Antipyretics : Drugs used- to lower body temperature.

  • Hormones : Drugs used to combat hormone deficiency that causes diseases. Drugs like insulin or adrenaline come under this category.

  • Narcotics : Drugs that deaden the nervous system and prevent a person from feeling pain, Eg : Opium and its derivatives such as codeine, heroin, morphine, etc.

  • Sedatives : Drugs used to induce sleep.

  • Tranquillizers : Drugs that calm nervous system and prevent worry, tension, etc.

Nuclear/Atomc Research Centre

Name Place
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, near Mumbai, M.S.
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research Kalpakkam, T.N.
Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, M.P.
Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre Kolkata
Atomic Minerals Directorate for  
Exploration and Research Hyderabad
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Kolkata, W.B.
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Mumbai, Maharashtra

Atomic Research Reactors

1. Apsara
2. Cirus
3. Zerlina
4. Purnima I
5. Purnima II
6. Dhruwa
7. Kamini

Space Centres

Name Place
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station Near Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
Satish Dhawan Rocket Launching Centre Shriharikota, A.P.
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Bangalore, Karnataka
pace Application Centre Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Centre Arvi, Near Pune, Maharashtra


  • A computer is an information-processing and information-accessing tool. This means that a computer accepts some information or data from the outside world. It processes it to produce a new information.
  • Meaning of Computer: The word computer has derived from an English word ‘Compute’, which means ‘to calculate’.
  • Computer is an electronic device which processes the input informations according to the given set of instructions, called program.
  • Blaise Pascal had developed the first mechanical calculator in 1642 AD, which is called ‘Pascalene’.
  • British scientist Charles Babbage was the first person to conceive an automatic calculator or a computer in 1833. He is called the ‘Father of modern computer’.
  • The credit of developing first computer program goes to Lady Ada Augusta, a student of Babbage.
  • Herman Holorith prepared an electronic tabulating machine in 1880, which was automatically functional with the help of Punch Card. This Punch Card is used in computer even today.
  • Howard Ekin developed the first mechanical computer ‘Mark-I’ in 1937.
  • J.P. Ekart and John Moschley invented world’s first electronic computer ‘ENIAC-1’ in 1946 and paved the way for first revolution in the field of calculating machine or computer. Electronic Valve or Vaccum Tube was used as a switch in the computer.
  • John Van Newman invented EDVAC (Electronic Descrete Variable Computer) in 1951, in which he used Stored Program. The credit of using Binary System in computers also goes to him. Indeed Mr. Newman contributed most in the development of computer and thus gave a right direction to the Computer Revolution (Second Revolution).

Super Computers developed in the World

 Name  Manufacturer
Deep Blue IBM Co., USA
Blue Gene IBM Co., USA
COSMOS Cambridge University, UK

Super Computers developed in India

 Name  Manufacturer
PARAM10000 C-DAC, Pune
CHIPP-16 C-Dot, Bangalore
MACH IIT, Bombay

Five Generations of Computer:

Generation Period Main Electronic Components Main Computers
I 1940-52 Electronic Valve Vaccum Tube EDSAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC
II 1952-64 Transistor IBM-700, IBM-1401, IBM-1620, CDC-1604, CDC-3600, ATLAS, ICL-1901
III 1964-71 IC (Integrated Circuit) IBM-360, IBM-370, NCR-395, CDC-1700, ICL-2903
Generation Period Main Electronic Components Main Computers
IV 1971-Still LIC (Largely Integrated Circuit) APPLE, DCM
V Resarch is on Optical Fibre  

Types of Computer : According to size and capacity, there are four types of Computer:

Micro Computer : These computers are used by individual, thus also called PC or Personal Computer. These days PCs are largely used for domestic and official purposes etc.

Mini Computer : This type of computer is comparatively larger than that of micro computer. This is 5 to 50 times more powerful than that of a Micro Computer.

Main Frame Computer : These are large sized computers. By Time Sharing and Multi Tasking techniques, many people rather more than 100 people can work at a time on different terminals of this computer.

Super Computer : These are very powerful computers and have more storage capacity. These are the most expensive and the fastest computers, able to process most complex jobs with a very high speed.

Quantum Computer : The development of this type of final stage. Probably Quantum Computers will be more advanced than that of human brain. In Quantum Computers, Q-Bit will be used in line of Binary Bits.

Programming Languages of different generations:

Generation Languages
1st Generation (1940-52) FORTRAIN-i
2nd Generation (1952-64) FORTRAIN-ii, ALGOL-60, COBOL, LISP
3rd Generation (1964-71) PL/I, ALGOL-W, ALGOL-68, Pascal, SIMULA-67, APL, SNOBOL, 4 BASIC, C
4th Generation (1971-till date) CLUE, ALFARD, UCLID, Reformed Pascal, MODULA, EDA, ORACLE
5th Generation (For future) Artificial Intelligence Languages.

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General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Minerals)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Minerals)


  • Necessary for normal growth, good health, good vision, proper digestion of the body, etc. They do not provide energy to our body.
  • Vitamins can he divided into two categories
  • Water-soluble : Vitamin B-complex, Vitamin C.
  • Fat-soluble : Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K.

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 32

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 32

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. The atomic nucleus of an atom (of a given element) gains or loses protons and by doing this, it changes into a nucleus of a different element.

a. X-ray
b. Alpha particle
c. Beta particle
d. Transmutation

2. The amount of time needed for half the atoms of a radioactive element to decay into atoms of other elements.

a. Atomic number
b. Atomic mass number
c. Half-life
d. Transmutation

3. Electrons in an atom drop from higher energy levels down to the lowest energy level. The atom emits electromagnetic radiation with a frequency higher than that of ultraviolet radiation.

a. X-ray
b. Alpha particle
c. Beta particle
d. Gamma ray

4. Your hand and your table are both mostly empty space. Despite this, your hand does not pass through the table because----

a. Your hand does not realize that it is mostly empty space
b. Your table does not realize that it is mostly empty space
c. Your table is not mostly empty space
d. electric fields keep your hand from passing through the table

5. We encounter radioactivity during the course of our lives. Most of this exposure comes from----

a. radios
b. TV
c. nuclear power plants
d. the natural environment

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 32

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 32

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. One of the following amendments imposed restrictions on the fundamental rights of the citizens with a view to protect the sovereignty and integrity of India. It was the----

(a) Sixteenth Amendment
(b) Twentieth Amendment
(c) Fifteenth Amendment
(d) Forty-second Amendment

2. The theory of basic structure of Constitution was propounded by the Supreme Court in----

(a) Golak Nath case
(b) Keshavananda Bharati Case
(c) Gopalan vs. State of Madras
(d) None of these

3. Which one of the following may be said to constitute the basic structure of the Constitution?

(a) Federal character of Constitution
(b) Secular nature of polity
(c) Mandate to build a welfare state
(d) all of them

4. Thirty-first Amendment Act, 1973 raised the total strength of Lok Sabha to:

(a) 525
(b) 550
(c) 514
(d) 545

5. Which among the following constitutional amendments provided for state reorganisation on linguistic basis?

(a) Third Amendment
(b) Fourth Amendment
(c) Sixth Amendment
(d) Seventh Amendment

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Summary of Functions of Different Cell Organelles)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Summary of Functions of Different Cell Organelles)


Balanced Diet

  •  The components of food are: Carbohy-drates, Fats, Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins, Water and Roughage.

  •  If all the components are present in optimum proportions and quantity for maintaining the body in perfect state of health, activity and development then the food is called balanced diet.


  •  Constitutes 3 elements : Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.

  •  Daily requirement 500 gms. 1 gm gives 17 KJ of energy.

  •  Sources : 3 main cereals (wheat, rice and maize), sugar cane, milk, fruits, honey, beet, etc.

  •  They are of 3 types : Cellulose, Starch and Sugar.

  •  Structurally, carbohydrates are of 3 types : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.

  •  Excess carbohydrate is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen.


  •  Provides twice the energy of carbohydrates (1 gm provides 37 KJ of energy).

  •  Acts as the reserve food material because excess fat is stored in the liver and as adipose tissue.

  •  An enzyme called Lipase digests fats. It breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol.

  •  Daily requirement: 50 gms.


  •  Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.

  •  Important for growth and repair of the body.

  •  Made up of amino acids.

  •  Kwashiorkar and Marasmus are the diseases which occur due to deficiency of protein.

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General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Units Of Measurements And Important Scientific Instruments)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Units Of Measurements And Important Scientific Instruments)

Quantity Units (S.I.)
Length Metre
Time Second
Mass Kilogram
Area Square metre
Volume Cubic metre
Velocity Metre/second
Acceleration Metre/second square
Density Kilogram/metre Cube
Work Joule
Energy Joule
Force Newton
Pressure Pascal or Newton/sq. metre Charge
Frequency Hertz
Power Watt
Weight Newton or Kilogram
Impulse Newton-second
Angular velocity Radian /second
Quantity Units (S.I.)
Viscosity Poise
Surface tension Newton/square metre
Heat Joule
Temperature Kelvin
Absolute temperature Kelvin
Resistance Ohm
Electric current Ampere
Electromotive force Volt
Electrical conductivity Ohm/metre
Electric energy Kilo watt hour
Electric power Kilo watt or watt
Magnetic intensity Orsted
Magnetic induction Gauss
Luminous flux Candela
Intensity of sound Decibel
Power of lens Dioptre
Depth of sea Fathom

Scientific Explanations Of Common Phenomena

  • It is dangerous to sleep in an unventilated room with fire burning inside because the fire produces carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases. Carbon monoxide is poisonous and can cause death

  • The filament of an electric bulb is made of tungston because it has a high melting point and can be heated to a high temperature to emit light.

  • Water kept in an earthen pitcher becomes cold because the pitcher has minute pores on its surface which absorb water. Water in the pores evaporates when it comes in contact with air, and produces a cooling effect.

  • A sliced apple, when exposed to air, turns brown after some time as it contains iron which gets oxidised and gives the fruit a brownish colour.

  • The freezing compartment inside a refrigerator is at the top because the air in contact with it becomes cold and heavy and sinks downwards, cooling the rest of the compartment.

  • A copper vessel left in the air for a long time turns green. This is due to the formation of copper carbonate when copper reacts with carbon dioxide and moisture present in the air.

  • A wick in a stove keeps burning continuously as kerosene rises in the wick due to capillary action.

  • The Earth rotates on its axis from west to east. This rotation makes the Sun and the stars appear to be moving across the sky from east to west.

  • The sky appears blue because the light of the Sun is spread or scattered by the dust particles in the air. In space the sky would appear black as there are no dust or air particles to scatter the light.

  • Food is cooked quickly in a pressure cooker because the boiling point of water increases at high pressure. Food cooks faster at high temperature.

  • In mountainous regions, the atmospheric pressure is less than it is at sea level. Water, therefore, boils at a lower temperature (less than 100° C) and food takes more time to cook.

  • When ice floating in a glass of water melts, the level of water remains unchanged because as a solid, ice displaces an equal volume of water.

  • A man weighs more at the poles than at the equator because the polar radius of the Earth is less than the equatorial radius. Hence the gravitational pull is more at the poles than at the equator.

  • Standing in double-decker buses, particularly on the upper floor, is not allowed because on tilting, the centre of gravity of the bus gets changed and it is likely to overturn.

  • The boiling point of seawater will be more than the boiling point of pure water because the former contains salt and other impurities.

  • An ordinary clock loses time in summer because the length of its pendulum increases, and therefore, its time period also increases. The pendulum takes more time to complete each oscillation and thus loses time.

  • Whenever there is water loss from the body, secretion of saliva is reduced resulting in dryness of the mouth and stimulating the sensation of thirst. Intake of fluid then helps in restoring the loss of the water.

  • A swimmer just out of the river feels cold particularly if it is windy, because of the evaporation of water from his body surface. The evaporation is more on a windy day.

  • Alcohol is sometimes rubbed on the body of a person suffering from fever. As soon as it is applied on the body, it evaporates taking away some heat from the body. Since evaporation has a cooling effect, the body temperature can be reduced by rubbing alcohol.

  • Soft iron is used as an electromagnet because it remains a magnet only while the current passes through the coil around it and loses its magnetism when the current is switched off.

  • The person jumping out of a moving train is carried forward in the direction of the train because the person himself is in motion sharing the velocity of the train and will continue in its state of uniform motion unless it exercises some force to prevent it (Newton’s first law of motion).

  • A lightning conductor is fixed to tall buildings to protect them from the destructive effects of the lightning.

  • An electric bulb makes a bang when it is broken because there is a vacuum inside the electric bulb; when the bulb is broken air rushes in at great speed from all sides to fill the vacuum. The rushing of air produces a noise generally referred to as the “bang”.

  • A small space is left between each set of two rails of railway line to allow for their expansion in summer.

  • A bad egg floats in water because the up-thrust produced on account of displaced water by the immersed portion of the bad egg is greater than the weight of the egg.

  • Moisture gathers on the outer surface of a glass tumbler containing cold water because the water vapours present in the air get cooled and appear as droplets of water on coming in contact with the cold surface of the glass tumbler.

  • The launching of Earth satellites should be from a place near the equator to take the fullest advantage of the Earth’s movements. The regions of the Earth closer to the equator are moving faster through space as compared to regions elsewhere. Thus at the equator, rockets would start off with a speed of nearly 1600 km/hour. Further, rockets are usually fired in the direction of the Earth’s rotation.

  • In deserts, day temperatures are very high and night temperatures are extremely low because the specific heat of sand is very low. It, therefore, absorbs the heat readily and its temperature rises by a large degree during the day. At night sand radiates the heat equally readily, making the temperature low.

  • If you are sweating, you will feel cooler on a hot day than on a cooler moist day because on a hot dry day the perspiration gets evaporated quickly producing more cooling effect.

  • The air escaping from a punctured tyre feels cold because the air escaping from a punctured tyre enters a region of low pressure from high pressure and thus suffers a fall in temperature.

  • White roof keeps the house cooler in summer than black roof because white roof reflects more and absorbs less heat rays whereas black roof absorbs more and reflects less heat rays.

  • It is hotter on a cloudy night than on a clear night because clouds prevent the heat radiated by the Earth from escaping into the sky.

  • Ice wrapped in a blanket does not melt away quickly because woollen blanket is a bad conductor of heat.

  • A rose appears red when day light falls on it because it absorbs all the constituent colours of white light except red, which it reflects to us.

  • Grass appears dark in blue light because it has the property of absorbing all other colours except its own colour. The blue rays falling on the grass are absorbed by it and hence it appears dark in colour.

  • A group of soldiers on a bridge are advised not to walk in steps because their movement causes the bridge to vibrate. It they walk in step the frequency of vibration may match the natural frequency of the bridge structure, thereby causing resonance. This resonance of frequency can cause the bridge to collapse.

  • When the wind is blowing at high speed, the roofs of the hutments are sometimes blown away. The pressure at the top falls much below the pressure below the roof. This difference in pressure across the roof causes it to be blown away.

  • Human breath is visible in winter but not in summer because in winter air is cold and so water vapours present in the human breath condense, making it visible.

  • Steam causes more severe burns than boiling water because steam at the same temperature has more latent heat which causes more severe burns than boiling water at the same temperature.

  • It is not advisable to wash a clinical thermometer with boiling water because the boiling point of water is much above the maximum provided in the clinical thermometer. As a result, pressure from undue expansion of mercury may break it.

  • The face turns red when one feels hot and turns blue when one feels cold. This is because in the first case the blood rushes towards the skin to get cooled, and in the second case it rushes away from the skin to keep itself warm.

  • A petrol fire cannot be extinguished by pouring water over it because of the high temperature of burning petrol the water breaks up into hydrogen and oxygen which only helps in burning. Further, petrol being lighter than water, floats on water and continues to burn.

  • We experience difficulty in breathing on mountains because the pressure of the air outside is less as compared to the pressure of air inside the lungs.

  • If a highly corked glass bottle full of water is left out of doors on a frosty night it will burst because the water contained in the bottle will freeze on a frosty night and convert into ice. There is no room available for the increased volume and this may result in bursting of the bottle.

  • Water extinguishes fire because as it evaporates, the temperature of the burning body is lowered, thus retarding or stopping the burning action. Also the resulting vapour surrounds the burning substance cutting off the oxygen supply thus inhibiting the burning process. In fact, hot water will extinguish fire more quickly than cold water as hot water will vaporise faster.

  • A perspiring man feels relief when air floats by his side because the flow of air increases the rate of evaporation of perspiration from the body.

  • Water from a hand pump is warm in winter and cold in summer because in winter outside temperature is low and in summer outside temperature is higher as compared to the temperature of water obtained from underground which remains practically unchanged due to Earth being bad conductor of heat.

  • A thick glass tumbler often cracks when very hot liquid is poured into it because the inner surface of the thick glass tumbler coming in contact with the hot liquid expands more in comparison with the outer surface which has relatively lower temperature. This unequal expansion of inner and outer surfaces causes the tumbler to crack.

  • When a gun is fired at a visible distance, the sound is heard a little after the smoke is seen because the velocity of light is much higher than that of sound.

  • A train stops when the chain is pulled because of the following mechanism. When the chain is pulled, one small valve gets opened and air enters to the under side of the piston head of the brake cylinder through pipe connections. Initially there is vacuum on both top and bottom side of the piston head. When air enters the under side of the piston head, the piston raises up due to difference of pressure and pulls the brake thus stopping the train.

Important Laws And Principles

  • Archimedes Principle: When a body is immersed either wholly or partially in a fluid at rest, the apparent loss of weight suffered by it is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it.

  • Avogadro’s Law : Equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.

  • Black Body Radiation : A black body absorbs heat or radiates heat more quickly than any other body.

  • Boiling Point : It increases with the increase of pressure. The presence of impurities also raises the boiling point of a liquid.

  • Boyle’s Law : At constant temperature, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely to its pressure.

  • Centre of Gravity : A body will remain at rest only if the vertical line through its centres of gravity passes through the base of support of the body.

  • Charle’s Law : The volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when the pressure remains constant.

  • Coulomb’s Law : The force between the two electric charges reduces to a quarter of its former value when the distance between them is doubled.

  • Dalton’s Law : At a specific temperature and for a container of fixed volume, the total pressure of a mixture of non-reacting gases is the sum of their respective partial pressures.

  • Doppler’s Principle : When the distance between the source of a wave and the observer increases due to their relative motion, the frequency of the wave appears to decrease. The converse condition is also true.

  • Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis
    1. The amount of chemical change during electrolysis is proportional to the charge passed.
    2. The masses of substances liberated or deposited by the same quantity of electric charge are proportional to their chemical equivalents.

  • Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle : The velocity and position of an electron in the orbit of an atom cannot be simultaneously determined.

  • Inverse Square Law : The force of attraction between two unlike magnetic poles and the force of repulsion between two like poles is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. A similar law is true of electrical charges also.

  • Law of Conservation of Matter : In chemical changes, matter is neither created nor destroyed. The sum total of the masses of all the products of a chemical change is exactly equal to the sum total of the substances from which these products have been ,formed.

  • Laws of Thermodynamics
    1. The amount of heat given to a system is equal to the sum of the increase in the internal energy of the system and the external work done.
    2. It is impossible to construct a continuous self-acting machine that can pump heat energy from a body at lower temperature to a body at higher temperature.

  • Lenz’s Law : When an electric current is induced by a change in magnetic field, the induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the change of field which causes the induction.

  • Mass-Energy Equation : E = mc2, where E = quantity of energy released from the annihilation of matter of mass ‘m’, c = velocity of light. It implies that mass and energy are interchangeable.

  • Newton’s Law of Cooling : The rate at which a body cools or looses its heat to its surroundings is proportional to the excess of mean temperature of the body over that of the surroundings, provided this temperature excess is not too large.

  • Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation : Everybody in the universe attracts every other body with a force, directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

  • Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by a force [called Law of inertial].
    2. The rate of change of momentum of a moving body is proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction of the force.
    3. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

  • Ohm’s Law : The amount of current flowing in an electric circuit is governed by the voltage of the battery or dynamo which powers it. In other words, the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the conductor and inversely proportional to its resistance.

  • Pascals’ Laws
    1. When pressure is applied to a fluid, the pressure change is transmitted to every part of the fluid without loss. Hydraulic machines work on this principle.
    2. Atmospheric pressure decreases with increase in height.

  • Rectilinear Propagation of Light : Light travels in a straight line. Total internal reflection takes place when a ray of light tries to pass from a denser medium to a rarer medium at an angle of incidence more than the critical angle.

Alloys & their uses

Alloys Uses
Brass In making utensils
Bronze In making coins, bell and utensils
German Silver In making utensils
Rolled gold In making cheap ornaments
Gun metal In making gun, barrels, gears and bearings
Delta metal In making blades of aeroplane
Munz metal In making coins
Dutch metal In making artificial ornaments
Monel metal For base containing container
Rose metal For making automatic fuse
Solder For soldering
Magnalium For frame of aeroplane
Duralumin For making utensils
Type metal In printing industry
Bell metal For casting bells, statues
Stainless steel For making utensils and surgical cutlery
Nickel steel For making electrical wire, automobile parts

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General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Insurance And Stock Exchanges)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Insurance And Stock Exchanges)

Insurance :-

  • Insurance has been an important part of the Indian financial system. Until recently, insurance services were provided by the public sector, i.e., life insurance by the Life Insurance Corporation of India and general insurance by the General Insurance Corporation and its four subsidiaries.
  • The insurance industry was opened up to the private sector in August 2000. After the opening up, 12 new companies have entered the life segment and 9 companies in the non-life segment.

1. Life Insurance Corporation (Lic)

  • Established : Sept 1, 1956.
  • Head office : Mumbai.
  • Zonal offices : 7 (Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Kanpur, Hyderabad and Bhopal)

2. General Insurance Corporation (Gic)

  • Established : Jan 1, 1973.
  • It has four subsidiary companies:
    I. National Insurance Company Ltd, Kolkata.
    II. The New India Assurance Co. Ltd, Mumbai
    III. The Oriental Fire & General Insurance Co. Ltd, New Del.,
    IV. United India Fire & General Insurance Co. Ltd, Chennai.

Stock Exchanges :-

  • Stock exchange or share market plays a dominant role in mobilizing resources for corporate sector. It is a market for dealing in shares, debentures and financial securities. In the stock exchange, shares and debentures are bought and sold for investment as well as for speculative purposes.

  • There are 24 stock exchanges in the country, oldest being the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).

Securities & Exchange Board of India (Sebi)

  • It was established in April, 1988, and awarded statutory status by an Act of Parliament in 1992.

  • It is the regulatory authority of stock exchanges and protects investors from fraudulent dealings.

  • The SEBI has now hiked the monetary penalties for various offences to either three times the unlawful gains made by a market player or a maximum of Rs. 25 crore

World Trade Organisation (Wto)

  • It was constituted on January 1, 1995 and took the place of GNIT (General

  • Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) as an effective formal organization. GATT was an informal organization which regulated world trade since 1948.

  • Its headquarter is at Geneva. Mr. Pascal Lamy is the present Director-General of WTO.

  • The present membership of WTO is 153.

  • The highest authority of policy making is WTO’s Ministerial Conference which is held after every two years.

Conference Year Place
First 1996 Singapore
Second 1998 Geneva
Third 1999 Seattle (USA)
Fourth 2001 Doha (Qatar)
Firth 2003 Cancun (Mexico)
Sixth 2005 Hongkong
  • Function : To provide facilities for implementation, administration and operation of multilateral and bilateral agreements of the world trade.

Asian Development Bank (Adb)

  • It was established in Dec. 1966 on the recommendations of ECAFE (Economic Commission for Asia and Far East).
  • The aim of this bank is to accelerate economic and social development in Asia and Pacific region.
  • The head office of the bank is located in Manila, Philippines.
  • The ADB finances and gives technical assistance for development projects and programs; encourages public and private capital investment for development purposes and helps in coordinating development policies and plans of developing member-countries.

Census-2011 (Provisional Data)
India At A Glance

Area :

Area of India :   3,287,240 Sq km.*
Largest State Rajasthan 342,239 Sq km
Smallest State Goa   3,702 Sq km
Largest Union Territory Andaman & Nicobar Islands 8,249 Sq km
Smallest Union Territory Lakshadweep 32 Sq km
Largest District Kachchh (Gujarat) 45,652 Sq km
Smallest District Mahe ( Pondicherry ) 9 Sq km

* The area figure exclude 78,114 sq. km. under the illegal occupation of Pakistan, 5,180 sq. km. Illegally handed over by Pakistan to China and 37,555 under the illegal occupation of China in Ladakh district.

Administrative Division
No. of States 28
No. of Union Territories 7
No. of Districts 593
No. of Sub-districts 5,463
No. of CD Blocks (as per map profile) 6,374
No. of Urban Agglomerations / Towns 4,378
No. of Urban Agglomerations 384
No. of Towns 5,161
No. of Inhabited Villages  593,732
(as per PCA TAS)  
No. of Uninhabited Villages 44,856

Top Ten Population Countries - World Population and India

Country Percent (%) of
World Population
China 19.4
India 17.5
USA 4.5
Indonesia 3.4
Brazil 2.8
Pakistan 2.7
Bangladesh 2.4
Nigeria 2.3
Russia Federal 2.0
Japan 1.9
Others 41.2

2011 Census of India

The 15th Indian National census was conducted in two phases, houselisting and population enumeration. Houselisting phase began on April 1, 2010 and involved collection of information about all buildings. Information for National Population Register was also collected in the first phase, which will be used to issue a 12-digit unique identification number to all registered Indians by Unique Identification Authority of India. The second population enumeration phase was conducted between 9 to 28 February 2011. Census has been conducted in India since 1872 and 2011 marks the first time biometric information was collected. According to the provisional reports released on March 31, 2011, the Indian population increased to 1.21 billion with a decadal growth of 17.64%. Adult literacy rate increased to 74.04% with a decadal growth of 9.21%.

Scope and process

Spread across 35 States and Union Territories, the Census covered 640 districts, 5767 tehsils, 7742 towns and more than 6 lac villages. 2.7 million officials visited households in 7,935 towns and 6,40,867 villages, classifying the population according to gender, religion, education and occupation. The cost of the was in the region of INR2,200 crore (US$490.6 million) – this comes to less than $ 0.5 per person, well below the estimated world average of $4.6 per person. The exercise, conducted every 10 years, faced big challenges, not least India’s vast area and diversity of cultures and opposition from the manpower is involved. Information on castes was included in the census following demands from several ruling coalition leaders including Lalu Prasad Yadav, Sharad Yadav and Mulayam Singh Yadav supported by opposition parties Bharatiya Janata Party, Akali Dal, Shiv Sena and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.Information on caste was last collected during the British Raj in 1931. During the early census, people often exaggerated their caste status to garner social status and it is expected that people downgrade it now in the expectation of gaining government benefits.There is only one instance of a caste-count in post-independence India. It was conducted in Kerala in 1968 by the Communist government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad to assess the social and economic backwardness of various lower castes. The census was termed Socio-Economic Survey of 1968 and the results were published in the Gazetteer of Kerala, 1971. The census was conducted in two phases. The first houselisting phase began on April 1, 2010 and involved collection of data about all the buildings and census houses.Information for National population register was also collected in the first phase. The second population enumeration phase was conducted from 9 to 28 February 2011 all over the country.

Census Data

Census of India 2011 and Population of India 2011 at Glance


Population Statistics
Total Population 1,21,01,93,422 (persons)
Males 62,37,24,248
Females 58,64,69,174
Ratio 940 Females/1000 Males
Decadal Growth 18,14,55,986(17.64%)
Density of Population 382 per sq. km.
Literacy(in percent) Total; 74.04, Males: 82.14, Females: 65.46.

State wise Population and Percent(%) of Total Indian Population as per India Cencus 2011

Economic Terminology

  • Arbitration : A method for solving disputes, generally of an industrial nature, between the employer and his employees.

  • Annuity : A fixed amount paid once a year or at interval of a stipulated period.

  • Ante date : To give a date prior to that on which it is written, to any cheque, bill or any other document.

  • Appreciation of Money : It is a rise in the value of money caused by a fall in the general price fall.

  • Assets : Property of any kin

  • Balance of Trade (or Payment) : The difference between the visible exports and visible imports of two countries in trade with each other is called balance of payment. If the difference is positive the balance of payment (BOP) is called favourable and if negative it is called unfavourable.

  • Balance Sheet : It is a statement of accounts, generally of a business concern, prepared at the end of a year, showing debits and credits under broad heads, to find out the profit and loss position

  • Banker’s Cheque : A Cheque by one bank on another.

  • Bank Rate : It is the rate of interest charged by the Reserve Bank of India for lending money to commercial banks.

  • Black Money : It means unaccounted money, concealed income and undisclosed wealth. In order to evade taxes some people falsify their account and do not record all transactions in their books. The money which thus remains unaccounted for is called Black Money.

  • Barter : To trade by exchanging one commodity for another.

  • Bear : A speculator in the stock market who believes that prices will go down.

  • Bearer : This term on cheques and bills denotes that any person holding the same has the same right in respect of it, as the person who issued it.

  • Bond : A legal agreement to pay a certain sum of money (called principal) at some future date and carrying a fixed rate of interest.

  • Bonus : It is in addition to normal payment of divident to shareholders by a company, on an extra gratuity paid to workers by the employer.

  • Budget : An estimate of expected revenues and expenditure for a given period, usually a year, item by item.

  • Budget deficit : When the expenditure of the government exceeds the revenue, the balance between the two is the budget deficit.

  • Bulls : Speculators in the stock markets who buy goods, in some cases without money to pay with, anticipating that prices will go up.

  • Buyer’s Market : An area in which the supply of certain goods exceeds the demands so that purchasers can drive hand bargains.

  • Carat : Measure or weight of precious stones. 24 carat gold is the purest gold, thus 22 carat gold means a piece of gold in which 22 parts are pure gold and 2 parts of an alloy, usually copper.

  • Cartel : It is a combination of business, generally in the same trade formed with a view to controlling price and enjoying monopoly.

  • Caution Money : It is the money deposited as security for the fulfilment of a contract or obligation.

  • Call Money : Loan made for a very short period. It carries a low rate of interest.

  • Credit, Letter of : A letter from a bank or a firm authorising payment to a third person of a specific sum for which the sender assumes full responsibility.

  • Commercial Banks : Financial institutions that create credit accept deposits, give loans and perform other financial functions. They create credit by creating deposits on the basis of their cash reserve ratio.

  • Deflation : It is a state in monetary market when money in circulation has decreased and is characterised by low prices, unemployment, etc.

  • Depreciation : Reduction in the value of fixed assets due to wear and tear.

  • Depression : A phase of the business cycle in which economic activity is at a low ebb and there is mass scale unemployment and underemployment of sources. Prices, profits, consumption, etc are also at a low level.

  • Devaluation : Official reduction in the foreign value of domestic currency. It is done to encourage the country’s exports and discourage imports.

  • Direct Tax : Taxes that are directly borne by the person on whom it was initially fixed. e.g.: Personal income tax.

  • Divident : Earning of stock paid to share holders.

  • Dumping : Sale of a commodity at different prices in different markets, lower price being charged in a market where demand is relatively elastic.

  • Exchange Rate : The rate at which central banks will exchange one country’s currency for another.

  • Excise Duty : Tax imposed on the manufacture, sale and consumption of various commodities, such as taxes on textiles, cloth, liquor, etc.

  • Fiscal Policy : Government’s expenditure and Tax policy.

  • Foreign Exchange : Claims on a country by another, held in the form of currency of that country. Foreign exchange system enables one currency to be exchanged for another, thus facilitating trade between countries.

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP): A measure of the total flow of goods and services produced by the economy over a specific time period, normally a year. It is obtained by valuing output of goods and services at market prices and then aggregating

  •  Indirect Taxes : Taxes levied on goods purchased by the consumer for which the tax payer’s liabilities varies in proportion to the quantity of particular good: purchased or sold.

  • Inflation : A sustained and appreciable increase in the price level over a considerable period of time

  • Laissez-faire : The principle of non-intervention of government in economic affairs.

  • Mixed Economy : The economy in which there is a unique blend of public sector and private sector co-exist. The perfect example is India.

  • National Income : Total of all incomes earned or inputted to factors of productions, used in economic literature to represent the output or income of an economy in a simple fashion.

  • Per Capita Income : Total GNP of a country divided by the total population. It is often used as an economic indicator of the levels of living and development. However, it is a biased index because it takes no account of income distribution.

  • Patents : It is an exclusive right granted under the Patents Act to the inventor for a new invention.

  • Preference Shares : These are the shares entitled to a fixed divident before any distribution of profits can be made amongst the holders of ordinary shares or stock.

  • Public Sector : A term which is generally applied to state enterprises, i.e., those companies which are nationalised and run by the government.

  • Recession : It happens when there is excess of production over demand.

  • Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) : It is the ratio of cash in hand, exclusive of cash balances maintained by banks to meet required CRR.

  • Tariff (ad valorem) : A fixed percentage tax on the value of an imported commodity, levied at the point of entry into the importing country.

  • Value Added Tax (VAT) :A tax levied on the values that are added to goods and services turned out by the producers during stages of production and distribution.

  • Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB) : The practice of justifying the utility in cost benefit terms of each government expenditure on projects. The ZBB Technique involves a critical review of every scheme before a budgetary provision is made in its favour. If ZBB is properly implemented it could help to reverse the trend of large deficits on the revenue account of the Union Government.

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 31

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 31

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. The bottom of a swimming pool appears closer to the surface than it actually is. This is caused by ___ of light.

a. refraction
b. fraction
c. reflection
d. flection

2. About 9 AM, in the morning, a beam of sunlight enters the water of your swimming pool. The beam necessarily bends ___ as it enters the water.

a. by zero degrees
b. by 180 degrees
c. by 90 degrees
d. towards the normal

3. Atoms which contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.

a. Quarks
b. Isotopes
c. Atomic number
d. Atomic mass number

4. A proton or a neutron. A particle present in an atomic nucleus.

a. X-ray
b. Alpha particle
c. Beta particle
d. Nucleon

5. Particles that join together to make protons and neutrons.

a. X-ray
b. Alpha particle
c. Quarks
d. Isotopes

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 31

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 31

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. Nagar Panchayats include :

(a) Notified Area Committee
(b) Town Area Committee
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Only A

2. The procedure for the amendment of the Indian Constitution is given in:

(a) Article 358
(b) Article 320
(c) Article 368
(d) all of these

3. The proposals for amendment of the Constitution can be initiated by:

(a) the people alone
(b) the State Legislature
(c) State Legislatures as well as the Parliament
(d) Parliament alone

4. Simple majority in voting is enough to amend provisions relating to:

(a) citizenship
(b) creation and abolition of a State
(c) administration of Scheduled Castes and Schedules Tribes
(d) all the above

5. Which one of the following amendments has been described as Mini Constitution?

(a) Forty-third
(b) Forty-second
(c) Fifty-second
(d) Thirty-ninth

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Banking System In India)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Banking System In India)

  • Bank of Hindustan (1770) was the first bank to be established in India (Alexander and Co.) at Calcutta under European management. Other banks set-up were Bank of Bengal (1806), Bank of Bombay (1840) and the Bank of Madras (1843) - these were called Presidency Banks

  • First bank with limited liability managed by an Indian board was Oudh Commercial Bank, founded in 1881. The first purely Indian bank was the Punjab National Bank (1894).

Reserve Bank of India

  • It is the Central Bank of the country.

  • It was established on April 1, 1935 with a capital of Rs. 5 crore. This capital of Rs. 5 crore was divided into 5 lakh equity shares of Rs. 100 each. In the beginning, the ownership of almost all the share capital was with the non-government share-holders.

  • It was nationalized on Jan 1, 1949 as govt. acquired the private share holdings.

  • Administration: 14 directors in Central Board of Directors besides the Governor, 4 Deputy Governors and one Government official. The Governor is the Chairman of the board & Chief Executive of the Bank.

  • Governors : Ist Governor - Sir Smith (1935 - 37)

  • Ist Indian Governor - C.D. Deshmukh (1948-49)


1. Issue of Notes: Regulates issue of bank notes above 1 rupee. It acts as the only source of legal tender money because the one rupee notes issued by Ministry of Finance are also circulated through it. The Reserve Bank has adopted the Minimum Reserve System for the note issue. Since 1957, it maintains gold and foreign exchange reserves of Rs. 200 crore, of which at least 115 crore should be in gold.
2. Banker to the Government: Acts as the banker, agent and advisor to the Govt. of India. It also manages the public debt for the Government.
3. Banker’s Bank: The Reserve Bank performs the same function for other banks as the other banks ordinarily perform for their customers.
4. Controller of Credit: The Reserve Bank undertakes the responsibility of controlling credits created by the commercial banks. To achieve this objective, it makes extensive use of quantitative and qualitative techniques to control and regulate the credit effectively in the country.
5. Custodian of Foreign Reserves: For the purpose of keeping the foreign exchange rates stable, the Reserve Banks buys and sells the foreign currencies and also protects the country’s foreign exchange funds.
6. It formulates and administers the monetary policy.
7. Acts as the agent of the Government of India in respect to India’s membership of the IMF and the World Bank.

  • No personal accounts are maintained and operated in RBI.

Nationalization of Banks

  • In order to have more control over the banks, 14 large commercial banks whose reserves were more than Rs. 50 crore each, were nationalized on July 1969 banks were:

1. The Central Bank of India
2. Bank of India
3. Punjab National Bank
4. Canara Bank
5. United Commercial Bank
6. Syndicate Bank
7. Bank of Baroda
8. United Bank of India
9. Union Bank of India
10. Dena Bank
11. Allahabad Bank
12. Indian Bank
13. Indian Overseas Bank
14. Bank of Maharastra

On April 15,1980 6 other private sector banks were nationalized. These banks are as—

1. Andhra Bank
2. Punjab & Sind Bank
3. New Bank of India
4. Vijaya Bank
5. Corporation Bank
6. Oriental Bank of Commerce.

Important Points

  • Bank Rate: It is the rate at which the Reserve Bank of India extends credit to commercial banks.

  • Cash Reserve Ratio (CPR): A commercial bank is required to keep a certain percentage of its total deposits with the Reserve Bank of India in cash. It is called Cash Reserve Ratio.

  • Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR): It is that ratio/ percentage of its total deposits which a commercial bank has to maintain with itself at any given point of time in the form of liquid assets like cash in hand, etc.

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General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Public Sector Steel Plants)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Public Sector Steel Plants)

Location Assistance
Rourkela (Orissa) Germany
Bhilai (MP) Russian Govt.
Durgapur (WB) British Govt.
Bokaro (Jharkhand) Russian Govt.
Burnpur (WB) Acquired from Private Sector in 1976
Vishakhapatnam (AP) Russian Govt.
Salem (Tamil Nadu)
Vijai Nagar (Karnataka)
Bhadrawati (Karnataka) Nationalization of Vishveshvarayya Iron & Steel Ltd. (Owned by Central and State Govt.)
  • All these are managed by SAIL. (At present all important steel plants except TISCO, are under Public Sector
  • Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) was established in 1974 and was made responsible for the development of the Steel Industry. Bhilai, Durgapur and Rourkela were established during the Second Five Year Plan. Bokaro was established during the Third while the steel plants at Salem; Vijai Nagar
  • and Vishakhapatnam were established in the Fourth Five Year Plan. Presently India is the 8th largest steel producing country in the world.

2. Jute Industry

  • Jute industry is an important industry for a country like India, because not only does it earn foreign exchange but also provides substantial employment opportunities in agriculture and industrial sectors.
  • Its first modernized industrial unit was established at Reshra in West Bengal in 1855.
    The jute industry in the country is traditionally export oriented. India ranks number one in raw jute and jute goods production and number two in export of jute goods in the world.

3. Cotton and Textile Industry

  • Oldest industry of India, and employs largest number of workers.
  • It is the largest organized and broad-based industry which accounts for about 4 per cent of GDP, 20 percent of manufacturing value added and one-third of total export earnings.
  • The first Indian modernized cotton cloth mill was established in 1818 at Fort Gloaster near Kolkata but this mill was not successful. The second mill named ‘Bombay Spinning and Weaving Co.’ was established in 1854 at Bombay by KGN Daber.

4. Sugar Industry

  • Sugar industry is the second largest industry after cotton textile industry among agriculture based industries in the country.
  • There are more than 500 installed sugar factories in the country. This industry provides not only employment to a substantial number of persons but also holds the potentialities of developing other industries related to its by-products.
  • India is now the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Maharas-htra contributes over one-third of the total sugar output, followed closely by UP.

5. Fertilizer Industry

  • India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers in the world.

6. Paper Industry

  • The first mechanized paper mill was set-up in 1812 at Serampur in West Bengal.
  • The paper industry in India is ranked among the 15 top global paper industries.

7. Silk Industry

  • India is the second largest (first being China) country in the world in producing natural silk. At present, India produces about 16 per cent silk of the world.
  • India enjoys the distinction of being the only country producing all the five known commercial varieties of silk, viz., Mulberry, Tropical Tussar, Oak Tussar, Eri and Muga.

8. Petroleum & Natural Gas

  • First successful oil well was dug in India in 1889 at Digboi, Assam.
  • At present a number of regions having oil reserves have been identified and oil is being extracted in these regions.
  • For exploration purpose, Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) was established in 1956 at Dehradun, Uttaranchal.

Marketing and Distribution of Petroleum Products

1. Indian Oil Corporation (IOC): Established in 1964 by amalgamating Indian Refineries Ltd. and Indian Oil Company Ltd.
2. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd (BPCL): By acquisition of Burmah Shell in 1976.
3. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL): Established in 1974 by acquiring the assets of US Company ESSO Eastern. In 1976, Government acquired Caltex Oil Refining Ltd. and merged it with HPCL.
4. Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL): Established in 1984, for handling post-exploration activities relating to natural gas. The company was assigned the priority task of setting up the cross country HBJ (Hazira, Bijapur and Jagdishpur) pipeline. Presently GAIL is the largest company in India for marketing of natural gas.


  • In 1997, the Government identified nine leading, well performing and high profit making public enterprises as Navratnas (Nine precious jewels). Later, in the same year, two more were added to the list. In 2007, three more companies were conferred Navratna status. In 2008, many more were conferred this status.

  • They have been given special powers including freedom to form new joint ventures, make new investments and authorized to raise money.

  • The Navratnas can forge joint ventures both in India and abroad, which can be up to 15 per cent of their net worth or Rs. 1000 crore, whichever is lower, without taking prior permission of the restrictive ministry.

1. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOC)
2. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL)
3. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL)
4. Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC)
5. Shipping Corporation of India Ltd. (SCIL)
6. Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL)
7. National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC)
8. Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL)
9. Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd. (REC)
10. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. (MTNL)
11. Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL)
12. Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL)
13. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL)
14. Power Finance Corporation (PFC)
15. National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC)
16. Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.
17. National Aluminium Corporation Ltd. (NALCO)
18. Coal India Ltd.


In 2009, the Government established the Mahartna Status with the objective to delegate enhanced powers to the Boards of identities Cargo sizes, Navratnas CPSES to facilitate further expansion of their operation, both in domestic as well as global market.

List of Maharatnas–

1. Indian Oil Corporation (IOC)
2. National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
3. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)
4. Steel Authority of India (SAIL)
5. Coal India Limited (CIL)


  • The Government has recognized another 57 profit making public enterprises as Miniratnas and has granted them financial, managerial and operational autonomy.


National Income Of India


A. Relating to the domestic product

  • GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT at Market Price = Market value of final output of goods and services produced within the country’s domestic economy in a period of one year.
  • NET DOMESTIC PRODUCT at Market Price = GDP – Depreciation
    = NDP (MP) – Indirect Taxes + Subsidies

B. Relating to the national product

  • GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT at Market Price = GDP (MP) + Net Factor income from Abroad
    Market Price = GNP (MP) – Depreciation
    NATIONAL INCOME = National Product (MP) – Indirect Taxes + Subsidies
    = National Income/Population
    = Net National Product at Factor Cost/Population.


  • The Ist estimate of National Income was prepared by Dadabhai Naoroji for the year 1867-68.
  • The Ist scientific estimate was made by Prof. V.K.R.V. Rao for the year 1931-32.
  • After independence, recognizing the importance of estimate of national income and its various components, the Government of India appointed the National Income Committee in 1949, with P.C. Mahalanobis as the Chairman.
  • Following the report of this committee, the task of national income was entrusted to the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO).

Indian Tax Structure


  •  Some taxes are levied, collected and retained by the Centre. These include customs duty, corporation tax, taxes on capital (other than agricultural land) etc

  •  Some taxes are levied and collected by the Centre but shared with the States. These include taxes on income other than agricultural income and union excise duties on goods included in Union List, excepting medicinal and toilet preparations.

  • Some taxes are levied and collected by the Centre but the proceeds are to be distributed among States. These include succession and estate duties in respect of property other than agricultural land, terminal tax on goods and passengers, tax on railway fares and freights, taxes on transaction in stock exchanges and future markets and taxes on sale or purchase of newspapers and ads.

  • Some taxes are levied by the Centre but collected and appropriated by the States. These include stamp duties other than included in Union List and excise duties on medicinal and toilet preparations.

  • Taxes belonging to State exclusively are land revenue, stamp duty, etc.

Structure of Taxes

1. Direct Taxes

  • Include taxes on income and property, the important ones being personal income tax, corporate tax, estate duty and wealth tax.

  • Income tax is progressive in India, i.e., the rate of tax is not uniform but rises progres-sively with the rise in money income.

  • During the last two decades, there has been a continuous reduction in the tax rate because high rates of income tax had merely encouraged tax evasion and growth in black money.


2. Indirect Taxes

  • Include Sales Tax, Excise Duties, Customs Duties, etc.

  • The Government of India earns maximum from Union Excise Duty.


  • Rupee was first minted in India during the reign of Sher Shah Suri around 1542.

  • India became a member of International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1947, & exchange value of rupee came to be fixed by IMF standards.

  • All coins and one rupee notes are issued by Govt. of India. That’s why one rupee note doesn’t bear the signature of Governor of RBI. It bears the signature of Finance Secretary, Government of India.

Demonetization of Currency

  • It refers to the withdrawal of currency from circulation which is done to ambush black market.

Mints And Presses

1. Indian Security Press, Nasik, prints postal and judicial stamps, cheques and bonds.

2. Currency Note Press, Nasik, prints notes of Rs. 10 and under denomination.

3. Bank Note Press, Dewas (MP) has 2 units
(a) Bank notes of Rs. 20, 50, 100 and above denominations.
(b) Ink factory for manufacturing security paper.

4. Security Paper Mill, Hoshangabad, manufactures paper for making currency notes and other security paper.

5. Security Printing Press at Hyderabad.

6. Government medals are minted at Kolkata and NOIDA.

Devaluation of Currency

  • Refers to reducing value of the Indian rupee in comparison to the leading currencies in the world market.                    

    First Devaluation • In June 1949 by 30.5% (Finance Minister : Dr. John Mathai)
    Second Devaluation • In June 1966 by 57% (Finance Minister : Sachindra Chaudhry)
    Third Devaluation • On July 1, 1991 by 9 % (Finance Minister : Dr. Manmohan Singh)
    Fourth Devaluation • On July 3, 1991 by 11% (Finance Minister : Dr. Manmohan Singh)


  • The basic objective of devaluation is to reduce deficits in balance of trade by making exports relatively cheap & imports costly.


  • Inflation is that state in which the prices of goods and services rise on the one hand and value of money falls on the other. When money circulation exceeds the production of goods and services, the state of inflation takes place in the economy.

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 30

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 30

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. An electromagnetic wave has a wavelength of 1 m. What is its frequency?

a. 30,000 Hz
b. 300,000 Hz
c. 3,000,000 Hz
d. 300,000,000 Hz

2. If Proxima Centauri, our closest star, were to explode right now, it would take about 4 years for us to know about it because----

a. it takes 4 years to build a big telescope to see the star
b. it takes 4 years to obtain funding to build the necessary telescope
c. the star is 4 years old
d. it takes 4 years for the light from this star to reach us\

3. When two waves are superposed, they reinforce each other, or cancel each other.

a. Huygen’s Principle
b. Diffraction
c. Interference
d. Polarization

4. A two-dimensional interference pattern that captures three-dimensional information.

a. Huygen’s Principle
b. Diffraction
c. Interference
d. Hologram

5. Alignment of the transverse vibrations of electromagnetic radiation.

a. Huygen’s Principle
b. Diffraction
c. Interference
d. Polarization

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 30

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 30

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. The Balwant Rai Mehta Committee was a committee on----

(a) Democratic Decentralisation
(b) Panchayati Raj institutes
(c) Administration arrangements for rural development
(d) Commentary development programme.

2. Panchayati Raj from of rural local government was adopted first by----

(a) Rajsathan and MP
(b) AP and West Bangal
(c) Rajasthan and AP
(d) AP and Rajsathan

3. The District and sessions judge works directly gender the central of----

(a) District Collector
(b) Governor of the state
(c) Law minister of the state
(d) High Court of the state

4. Arrange the following in ascending order----

1. Tehsil
2. sub-division
3. village
4. Paragama

Codes :

(a) 2, l, 2, 3
(b) 2, 1, 3, and 4
(c) 3, 4, 1, 2
(d) 3, 4, 2 and 1

5. Which of the following is a committee on Panchayat Raj institutions’?

(a) Balwant Rai Mehta Committee
(b) G.V.K. Rao Committee
(c) L.M. Singhvi Committee
(d) Ashok Mehta Committee

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 29

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 29

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. No light can pass through this material. The light is absorbed or reflected rather than transmitted.

a. Electromagnetic wave
b. Electromagnetic spectrum
c. Transparent
d. Opaque

2. An oscillating electric charge emits a wave with oscillating electric and magnetic fields.

a. Electromagnetic wave
b. Electromagnetic spectrum
c. Transparent
d. Opaque

3. A darker region that appears when an object blocks the path of rays of light.

a. Electromagnetic wave
b. Electromagnetic spectrum
c. Transparent
d. Shadow

4. The shadow of the earth falls on the moon, so the moon is obscured.

a. Shadow
b. Umbra
c. Penumbra
d. Lunar eclipse

5. The moon’s shadow falls on the earth, so the sun is only partially visible.

a. Shadow
b. Umbra
c. Penumbra
d. Solar eclipse

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 29

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 29

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. The leading wool producing country of the world is----

(a) New Zealand
(b) Australia
(c) Canada
(d) Argentina

2. Which state of USA is also known as the Blue Grass state?

(a) California
(b) Kentucky
(c) Montana
(d) Texas

3. Which one of the following is not a type of shifting cultivation?

(a) Chena
(b) Jhuming
(c) Milpa
(d) Fazenda

4. Which set of the following crops is related to the plantation agriculture?

(a) Rice, wheat and barley
(b) Cotton, jute and oilseeds
(c) Maize, millets and mustard
(d) Tea, coffee and rubber

5. Above five per thousand fertility rate in the world is found in----

(a) Bangladesh
(b) Brazil
(c) Ethiopia
(d) Indonesia

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 28

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 28

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. An electric circuit where the resistors are connected in such a manner that the current (in amperes) flowing through each resistor has to be the same as the current flowing through each of the other resistors.

a. Alternating current (AC)
b. Electric power
c. Series ciruit
d. Parallel circuit

2. An electric circuit where the resistors are connected in such a manner that the voltage (potential) across each resistor has to be the same as the voltage across each of the other resistors.

a. Alternating current (AC)
b. Electric power
c. Series ciruit
d. Parallel circuit

3. Measured in Watts or kilowatts. The amount of electrical energy transferred per unit time.

a. Alternating current (AC)
b. Electric power
c. Series ciruit
d. Parallel circuit

4. A magnetic field runs from the top of this page down to the bottom of this page. An electron is fired from left to right across the page. The electron is ___ by the magnetic field.

a. Indifferent to
b. attracted by
c. repelled by
d. deflected out of the plane of the page

5. A small piece of metal is attracted to a large magnet. The magnet is attracted to the small piece of metal with a force that is ____ compared to the force with which the metal is attracted to the magnet.

a. very large
b. very small
c. the same
d. similar but not the same

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 28

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 28

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. The third position in the manufacture of cars in the world is occupied by----

(a) Japan
(b) USA
(c) France
(d) Germany

2. Silicon Valley is located in----

(a) Scotland
(b) California
(c) Swiss Alps
(d) New England states

3. Largest producer of silver in the world is----

(a) Mexico
(b) USA
(c) Laos
(d) South Africa

4. Plantation agriculture is most widespread in-----

(a) Nile valley
(b) Mississippi valley
(c) California
(d) Caribbean

5. Dry warm summers are found in----

(a) China Sea
(b) Mediterranean Sea
(c) Red Sea
(d) Arabian Sea

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (National Development Council And Five Year Plans)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (National Development Council And Five Year Plans)

National Development Council

  • All the plans made by the Planning Commission have to be approved by National Development Council first. It was constituted to build co-operation between the States and the Planning Commission for economic planning.

  • It is an extra-constitutional and extra-legal body.

  • It was set up on August 6, 1952, by a proposal of the Government. The PM is the ex-officio chairman of NDC. Other members are Union Cabinet ministers, Chief’ Ministers & Finance Ministers of all States, Lt. Governors of Union Territories and Governors of Centrally Ruled States.

State Planning Boards

  • Apex planning body at State level is generally a State Planning Body comprising the Chief Minister as Chairman, Finance and Planning ministers of that State and some technical experts.

  • District Planning Committee is also there comprising both official and non-official members.

Five Year Plans

First Five Year Plan (1951-56)

  • It was based on Harrod-Domar Model.

  • Community Development Program was launched in 1952.

  • Two- fold objectives were there:

  • To correct the disequilibrium in the economy caused by 3 main problems- influx of refugees, severe food shortage and mounting inflation.

  • To initiate a process of all-round balanced development to ensure a rising national income and a steady improvement in living standards.


  • Emphasized on agriculture, price stability, power & transport.

  • It was more than a success, because of good harvests in the last two years.

Second Five Year Plan (1956-61)

  • Also called Mahalanobis Plan after its chief architect. It was based on 1928 Soviet Model of Feldman.

  • Its emphasis was on economic stability. Agriculture target fixed in the first plan was almost achieved. Consequently, the agriculture sector got low priority in the second five year plan.

  • Its objective was rapid industrialization, particularly basic and heavy industries such as iron and steel, heavy chemicals like nitrogenous fertilizers, heavy engineering and machine building industry.

  • Besides, the Industrial Policy of 1956 emphasized the role of Public Sector and accepted the establishment of a socialistic pattern of the society as the goal of economic policy.

  • Advocated huge imports which led to emptying of funds leading to foreign loans. It shifted basic emphasis from agriculture to industry far too soon. During this plan, price level increased by 30%, against a decline of 13% during the First Plan.


Third Five Year Plan (1961-66)

  • At its conception time, it was felt that Indian economy has entered a take-off stage. Therefore, its aim was to make India a ‘self-reliant’ and ‘self-generating’ economy.

  • Also, it was realized from the experience of first two plans that agriculture should be given the top priority to suffice the requirements of export and industry.

  • The other objectives of the plan included the expansion of basic industries, optimum utilization of country’s labour power and reducing the inequalities of income and wealth.

  • Relied heavily on foreign aid (IMF).

  • Complete failure due to unforeseen misfortunes, viz. Chinese aggression (1962), Indo-Pak war (1965), severest drought in 100 years (1965-66).

Three Annual Plans (1966-69)

  • Plan holiday for 3 years. The prevailing crisis in agriculture and serious food shortage necessitated the emphasis on agriculture during the Annual Plans.

  • During these plans a whole new agricultural strategy involving wide-spread distribution of High-Yielding Varieties of seeds, the extensive use of fertilizers, exploitation of irrigation potential and soil conservation was put into action to tide-over the crisis in agricultural production.

  • During the Annual Plans, the economy basically absorbed the shocks given during the Third Plan, making way for a planned growth.

Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74)

  • The Fourth Plan set before itself the two principal objectives- ‘growth with stability’ and ‘progress towards self-reliance’

  • Main emphasis on agriculture’s growth rate so that a chain reaction can start.

  • Fared well in the first two years with record production, last three years failure because of poor monsoon.

  • Had to tackle the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before and after 1971 Indo-Pak war.

  • During the planning period, prices increased by about 61%.

Fifth Five Year Plan (197479)

  • The fifth plan prepared and launched by D.D. Dhar proposed to achieve two main objectives viz, ‘removal of poverty’ (Garibi Hatao) and ‘attainment of self reliance’, through promotion of high rate of growth, better distribution of income and a very significant growth in the domestic rate of savings.

  • National Program of Minimum Needs was initiated in which primary education, drinking water, medical facilities in rural areas, nourishing food, land for the houses of landless labourers, rural roads, electrification of the villages and cleanliness of the dirty suburbs were included.

  • The plan was terminated in 1978 (instead of 1979) when Janta Govt. came to power.

Rolling Plan (1978-80)

  • There were 2 Sixth Plans. One by Janta Govt. (for 78-83) which was in operation for 2 years only and the other by the Congress Govt. when it returned to power in 1980.

  • The Janta Govt. Plan is also called Rolling Plan.

  • The focus of the plan was enlargement of the unemployment potential in agriculture and allied activities, encouragement to household and small industries producing consumer goods for consumption and to raise the incomes of the lowest income classes through minimum needs program.

Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85)

  • Objectives: Increase in national income, modernization of technology, ensuring continuous decrease in poverty and unemployment, population control through family planning, etc.

Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90)

  • The seventh plan emphasized policies and programs which aimed at rapid growth in food-grains production, increased employment opportunities and productivity within the framework of basic tenants of planning.

  • It was a great success, the economy recorded 6% growth rate against the targeted 5%.

Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97)

  • ‘The eighth plan was postponed by two years because of political upheavals at the Centre and it was launched after a worsening Balance of Payment position and inflation during 1990-91.

  • The plan undertook various drastic policy measures to combat the bad economic situation and to undertake an annual average growth of 5.6%.

  • Some of the main economic performances during eighth plan period were rapid economic growth, high growth of agriculture and allied sector, and manufacturing sector, growth in exports and imports, improvement in trade and current account deficit.

  • The most notable feature of the eighth plan period was that the GDP grew at an average rate of 6.8% exceeding the target growth rate of 5.6%.

Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002)

  • It was developed in the context of four important dimensions: Quality of life, generation of productive employment, regional balance and self-reliance.

Appraisal of The Ninth Plan

  • Growth rate of GDP during the plan was 5.4% per annum as against the target of 6.5%. Agriculture grew by 2.1% as against the target of 4.2% p.a

  • Exports grew by 7.4% (target was 14.55%) and imports grew by 6.6% (target was 12.2% p.a.).

  • Services grew at the rate of 7.8% p.a.

Tenth Five Year Plan (2002- 2007)

  • Its objectives included achieving the growth rate of 8%, reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and to 10% by 2012, universal access to primary education by 2007, increase in literacy rate to 72% within the plan period and to 80% by 2012.

The Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-07) was approved by the National Development Council on 21st December 2002. Its target is reduction in the poverty ration from 26 per cent to 21 per cent, by 2007; Decadal Population Growth to reduce from 21.3 per cent in 1991-2001 to 16.2 per cent in 2001-11;Growth in gainful employment, at least, to keep pace with addition to the labour force; All children to be in school by 2003 and all children to complete five years of schooling by 2007; Reducing gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by 50 per cent; literacy rate to increase from 65 per cent in 1999-2000, to 75 per cent in 2007; Providing potable drinking water to all villages; Infant Mortality Rate to be reduced from 72 in 1999-2000, to 45 in 2007; Maternal mortality ratio be reduced from four in 1999-2000, two in 2007; Increase in forest/ tree cover form 19 per cent in 1999-2000, to 25 percent in 2007; and cleaning of major polluted river stretches.

Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012)

  • Accelerate growth rate of GDP from 8% to 10% and then maintain at 10% in the 12th Plan in order to double per capita income by 2016-17

  • Increase agricultural GDP growth rate of 4% per year to ensure a broader spread of benefits

  • Reduce dropout rates of children from elementary school from 52.2% in 2003-04 to 20% by 2011-12.

  • Increase literacy rate for persons of age 7 years or more to 85%.

  • Reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) to 28 and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to 1 per 1000 live births.

  • Raise the sex ratio for age group 0-6 to 935 by 2011-12 and to 950 by 2016-17.

  • Ensure electricity connection to all villages and BPL households by 2009 and round the clock power by the end of the Plan.

  • Increase forest and tree cover by 5 percentage points.

12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017)

The draft Approach to the 12th Five Year Plan has been approved by the National Development Council (NDC). The theme of the approach paper is “faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth”. The plan proposes a growth rate of a 9 percent. Emphasis is on inclusive development which focuses on agriculture and crucial social sectors including health, education, women and children. There is also an emphasis on strengthening institutes and delivery mechanisms that takes the benefits of high growth to the poor.

12th Plan - Target
GDP - 9.0% 9.5%

Five Year Plans In India At A Glance

Plan Period Model Main Objectives Growth Rate Special Features
1st 1951-56 Harold Domar Development of Agriculture 3.6% It was the lst Plan onsocial development i.e.Community Develop-ment (CDP)-1952
IInd 1956-61 Mahalnovis Rapid Industrialisation 4.2% Started Industrialization

(These two Plans were most successful plans in India)

IIIrd 1961-66 John Sandy and S.Chakravarty Self-Reliance and self sustained economy 2.7%  (5-6 wastarget) 1st official declared fail
  1966-69  Plan Holiday or Annual Plan     1. Green Revolution-1966-67

2. Devaluation of Currency-(2nd devalution in India of currency) 1st was in 1949.

IVth 1969-74 Allen S.e  Mann and Ashok Rudra Self-reliance and growth with stability 3.3% (target was 5.7%) Causes-1971war,1972-73 oil crisis.Important events related with Policy change.
1. Nationalization of Banks in 1969 by Indira Gandhi.
2. MRTP Act - 1969 (Aggressive socialism)
3. J.P. Movement-Indira hatao followed by Garibi hatao by Congress Govt.
Vth 1974-79 Planning Commission Eradication of Poverty “The concept of Rolling Plan” was given by Janta Government  4.8% (target was 4.4% 1. National Emergency-25th June 1975.

2. 1st Non – Congress govt at the Centre 1977 (Janta Govt.)

3. 1st food for work programme by Janta party -1978; it was 1st nationwise programme rather than region wise.
4. 1979 - Congress back on Power. Janta Party stopped the plan.

  1979-80 Plan Holiday-Annual Plan      
VI 1980-85 Planning Commission (emphasis on structural change Employment Same Objective as Vth Plan  5.5% 1. No. of employment schemes were started. (1st serious attempt towards employment generation)

2. 1st time the word

VII 1985-90 Planning Commission (emphasis on Iiberalization) “Modernization of our existing sector and to promote the Modern sector. “Towards 21st Century” slogan was given by PM Rajiv Gandhi - i.e. A Modern Economy  6.0% 1st time the share of public sector in plan outlay was less than 50%. Economic reforms started in India -1991
  1990-92  Annual Plan 1. Bofors issue
2. Economic crisis-1990
3. 3rd devaluation of Curreny-1991
4.New Industrial Policy on 24th July, 1999 by declaring the liberalisation in Indian Economy.
VIII 1992-97 John W. Miller (Rao- Manmohan) Human Resources Development (Compe tition)within the country  6.7% (highest till the 8th 1. Highest growth rate
2. The base year was  Plan) Changed to  1991-92
     Model) and outside the world) Due to this policy, India
is leading in IT Sector.
IX 1997-02  Planning  Commission Equitable distribution and growth with equality due to external 5.4% (it was  factors) 1. Pokahran
2. South East Asia Crisis
3. Kargil war
4. 2001-02 major recession
in the world economy.

Poverty And Unemployment

  • Every third Indian is living below poverty line, estimates an expert group saying that more than 37 per cent of people are poor, ten per cent more than estimated earlier. Among the states, Orissa and Bihar are at the bottom, while Nagaland, Delhi and J&K have the least number of poor, says a report by the expert group, headed by Suresh Tendulkar, former chairman of PM’s Economic Advisory Council.

  • As much as 41.8 per cent of the rural population survive with monthly per capita consumption expenditure of Rs 447, in other words they spend only Rs 447 on essential necessities like food, fuel, light, clothing and footwear.

  • Among urban population, 25.7 per cent are poor, spending Rs 578.8 on essential needs.The group was set up in the wake of growing criticism of the existing official estimates of poverty released by the Planning Commission in 2007. According to

  • the Planning Commission’s recent estimates, poverty in India came down from 35.97 per cent in 1993-94 to 27.54 per cent in 2004-05.

Poverty in India


Poverty Ratio (Per cent)

Number of Poor (Millions)
  Rural Urban Combined Rural Urban Combined
1977-78 53.1 45.2 51.3 264.3 64.4 328.9
1983 45.7 40.8 44.5 252.0 70.9 322.9
1987-88 39.1 38.2 38.9 231.9 75.2 307.1
1993-94 37.3 32.4 36.0 244.0 76.3 320.3
1999-00 27.1 23.6 26.1 193.2 67.1 260.3
2007 21.1 15.1 19.3 170.5 49.6 220.1


It simply means a situation when able and willing people are not getting jobs as per their own capabilities.

Types of Unemployments

Structural Unemployment

  • This type of unemployment is associated with economic structure of the country, i.e., productive capacity is inadequate to create a sufficient number of jobs. Rapidly growing population causes this.

  • This type of unemployment is of long run nature. Indian unemployment is basically related to this category of unemployment.

Under Employment

  • Those labourers are under-employed who obtain work but their efficiency and capability are not utilized at their optimum and as a result they contribute in the production up to a limited level.

  • A country having this type of unemployment fails to exploit the efficiencies of its labourers.
    Open Unemployment

  • When the labourers live without any work and they don’t find any work to do, they come under the category of open unemployment. Educated unemployed and unskilled labour unemployment are included in open unemployment.

  • The migration from rural to urban areas in search of work is very often found in India which is an example of open unemployment.

Disguised Unemployment

  • If a person does not contribute anything in the production process or in other words, if he can be removed from the work without affecting the productivity adversely, he will be treated as disgustedly unemployed. The marginal productivity of such unemployed person is zero.

  • Agriculture sector of underdeveloped/ developing economies possesses this type of unemployment at a large scale.

Frictional Unemployment

  • The unemployment generated due to change in market conditions (change in demand and supply conditions) is called frictional unemployment.

  • Agriculture is the main occupation in India. The supply conditions still depend upon weather’s mood and similarly demand conditions depend upon availability of resources. Any change arising either of any or both creates a diversion from the equilibrium which results in frictional unemployment.

Seasonal Unemployment

  • It appears due to a change in demand based on seasonal variations. Labourers do not get work round the year. They get employed in the peak season of agricultural activities and become unemployed when these activities are over.

  • Indian agriculture ensures employment for only 7-8 months and labourers remain unemployed in the remaining period. This temporary type of employment gives birth to seasonal unemployment.


Important Anti-poverty And Employment Generation Programs

Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (Sgry)

  • Started on April 1, 1999. It has replaced the following programs: o Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP) : Started in 1978-79.

  • Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM): Started in 1978-79.

  • Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA): Started in 1978-79.

  • Ganga Kalyan Yojana (GKY): Started in 1997.

  • Million Wells Scheme (MWS): Started in 1989.

  • Supply of Improved Tool-kits to Rural Artisans (SITRA).

  • The yojana takes into account all the strengths and weaknesses of the earlier self-employment programs.

  • Every assisted family will be brought above the poverty line. It is proposed to cover 30% of the rural poor in each block. To target at least 50% Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, 40% women and 3% disabled.

Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Pmgy)

  • It was introduced in 2000-01 with the objective of focusing on village level development in five critical areas, i.e., primary health, primary education, housing, rural roads and drinking water and nutrition with the overall objective of improving the quality of life of people in rural areas. Rural electrification was added as an additional component from 2001-02.

  • It has the following components :

  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY): It was launched on Dec 25, 2000 with the objective of providing road connectivity through good all weather roads to all rural habitations with a population of more than 1000 persons by the year 2003 and those with a population of more than 500 persons by the year 2007.

  • Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Gramin Awas): Launched on April 1, 2000, based on the pattern of Indira Awas Yojana, the scheme is being implemented in the rural areas throughout the country with the objective of sustainable habitat development.

  • Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Rural Drinking Water Project)

Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (Sgry)

  • It was started on Sept. 25, 2001, with the mergence of the Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and the Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana (JGSY). Earlier Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, which started in 1989, was merged with Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana.

  • The objective of the program is to provide additional wage employment in rural areas and also to provide food security.

Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)

  • The SJSRY came into operation in Dec, 1997, through a restructuring and streamlining of the earlier urban poverty alleviation programs, the Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY), the Urban Basic Services for the Poor (UBSP) and the Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Alleviation Program (PMIUPEP).

  • It seeks to provide employment to the urban employed or underemployed living below poverty line and educated up to IX standard through encouraging the setting up of self-employment ventures or provision of wage employment.

Antyodaya Anna Yojana

  • Launched on Dec. 25, 2000. the scheme aims at providing food security to poor families.

  • The scheme contemplates identification of 10 million ‘poorest of the poor’ families and providing them with 25 kg of food grains per family per month at a low price of Rs. 2 per kg for wheat and Rs. 3 per kg for rice.

Annapurna Yojana

  • Inaugurated on March 19, 1999.

  • Initially the scheme provided 10 kg food grains to senior citizens who were eligible fore old age pension but could not get it due to one reason or the other. Later on, it was extended to cover those people who get old age pensions.

  • Food grains are provided to the beneficiaries at subsidized rates of Rs. 2 per kg of wheat and Rs. 3 per kg of rice.

Major Programmes for Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation at a Glance

  1. Pradhan Mantri Gram Udaya Yojana (PMGY)

  2. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SUSY)

  3. Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana (SURY)

  4. Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana (PMRY)

  5. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)

  6. Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)

  7. Desert Development Programme (DPAP)

  8. Integrated Waterlads Development Programmes (IWDP)

  9. Antoyada Anna Yojana (AAY)

  10. Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rojgar Yojana (SJSRY)

  11. Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY)

  12. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNRGA)

  13. Jawaharlal Nehru National Umber Renewal Mission (JNNURM).


Importance of Agriculture in India

1. Contribution to GDP

  • Agriculture forms the backbone of Indian economy. It contributes approx. 26 per cent of Gross Domestic Product. It was 55.4 per cent in 1950-51.

  • Though the share of agriculture in national income has come down, even now agriculture contributes a majored share of the national income in India. Further, the share of agriculture in manufacturing and service sector are increasing.

2. Source of Employment

  • Agriculture provides employment to around 65 per cent of the total work-force of the country.

3. Source of Industrial Development

  • Agriculture has been the source of supply of raw material to our leading industries.

  • Many of our small and cottage industries like handloom, weaving, oil crushing, rice husking, etc, depend on agriculture.

4. Importance in International Trade

  • India’s foreign trade is deeply associated with agriculture sector.

  • Value of agriculture exports to total exports of the country has been ranging between 15 to 20 per cent. Besides, goods made with the raw material of agriculture sector also contribute about 20 per cent in Indian exports. In other words, agriculture and its related goods contribute about 38 per cent in total exports of the country.

Green Revolution


  • Indian Green Revolution is associated with the use of HYVS (High Yielding Variety Seeds), chemical fertilizers and new technology which led to a sharp rise in agricultural production during the middle of 1960.

  • The term ‘Green Revolution’ was given by American scientist, Dr. William Gande.

  • During the middle of sixties, Indian agriculture scientists developed a number of new high yielding varieties of wheat by processing wheat seeds imported from Mexico. A similar improvement in variety of rice was also observed.

  • The credit of this goes not only to Nobel Laureate Dr. Norman Borlaug, but also to Dr. M.S. Swaminathan.


  • Of all the plans, the sixth five-year plan was hailed as a great success on the agriculture front. As against the annual growth of 3.8 per cent for agriculture, the actual growth rate was 4.3 per cent. The production of food grains in 1983-84 was 152 million tones and was hailed by the Government as the second Green Revolution.

  • While the first Green Revolution from 1967-68 arose from the introduction of HYVS of Mexican wheat and rice, the second Green Revolution from 1983-84 was said to be from the extension in supplies of inputs and services to farmers, agricultural extension and better management.

  • While the first Green Revolution was confined mainly to Punjab, Haryana and Western UP, the second Revolution has spread to the entire North India.

Other Revolutions

Revolution Area
Yellow Revolution Oil seeds
White Revolution Milk
Blue Revolution Fish
Pink Revolution Shrimp/Meat
Brown Revolution Non-conventional energy resources
Grey Revolution Wool
Golden Revolution Horticulture


Coal : India ranks 3rd in the world after China and USA in Coal production. Resource wise coalfields of Orissa contain the largest reserves though mostly of inferior quality.

  1. Gondwana coal is located in coalfields occupying the Indian heartland inthe States of WB, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, MP, Maharashtra, UP and AP.

  2. Tertiary coals occur in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland.

  3. Brown coal or lignite occurs in coastal areas of TN, Gujarat and Inland basin of Rajasthan.

Chromite : The largest share (about 97%) of the total geographical resources is accounted by Cuttack District in Orissa.
Barytes : The Mangampet deposit occuring in Cuddapah District (Andhra Pradesh) is the single largest deposit in the world
: India is the world’s leading producer of sheet mica and accoutns for about 60 per cent of global mica trade.
Bauxite : Orissa and AP.
: Rajasthan is credited with the largest resources of copper.
Gold : Three important gold fields in the country are Kolar Gold Field, Hutti Gold Field (Karnataka) and Ramgiri Gold Field (Andhra Pradesh).
Iron Ore : Iron ore is distributed in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Goa.
Manganese : Main deposits of Managanese are Karnataka, followed by Orissa, MP, Maharashtra and Goa.
Tungsten : The main deposits of Tungsten are at Degana, Rajasthan.
Diamong : The main diamond bearing areas are Panna belt in MP, Munimadugu-Banganapalle conglomerate in Kurnool district, Wajrakarur Kimberlite pipe in Anantapur district and the gravels of Krishna river basin in AP.
Gypsum : Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir.
Limonite : Beach sand deposits right from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) to coast in Kerala, T N and Orissa.
Limestone : AP is the leading state followed by Rajasthan, Karanataka, MP.
Magnesite : Uttaranchal (66%) followed by T N (18%) and Rajasthan (14%).
Phosphate Minerals : Phosphorites are located in MP, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, UP and Gujarat
Lignite : These reserves have been identified in TN, Rajasthan, Gujarat, J&K and Kerala. Lignite reserved at Neyveli are exploited by Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd. (NLC). It is completely owned by Government in 1959. NLC has obtained ISO 9001:2000 (Quality Management System), ISO 14001:2004 (Environment Management System), ISO 18001:1999 (Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSAS)).

Important Industries Of India

1. Iron & Steel Industry

  • 1st Steel industry at Kulti, near Jharia, West Bengal - ‘Bengal Iron Works Company’ in 1870.

  • 1st large scale steel plant - TISCO at Jamshedpur in 1907 followed by IISCO at Burnpur in 1919 both belonged to private sector

  • The first public sector unit was ‘Vishveshvarayya Iron and Steel Works’ at Bhadrawati.

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SSC Courses and Programs: 

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (History Of Planning In India And The Planning Commission)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (History Of Planning In India And The Planning Commission)

History Of Planning In India

  • First attempt to initiate economic planning in India was made by Sir M.Visvesvarayya, a noted engineer and politician in 1934 through his book ‘Planned Economy For India’.

  • In 1938 ‘National Planning Commission’ was set-up under the chairmanship of J.L. Nehru by the Indian National Congress. Its recommendations could not be implemented because of the beginning of the Second World War and changes in the Indian political situation.

  • In 1944 ‘Bombay Plan’ was presented by 8 leading industrialists of Bombay.

  • In 1944 ‘Gandhian Plan’ was given by S. N. Agarwal.

  • In 1945 ‘People’s Plan’ was given by M. N. Roy.

  • In 1950 ‘Sarvodaya Plan’ was given by J. P. Narayan. A few points of this plan were accepted by the Government.

The Planning Commission

  • The Planning Commission was set up on March 15, 1950 under the chairmanship J.L. Nehru, by a resolution of Union Cabinet.

  • It is an extra-constitutional, non-statutory body.

  • It consists of Prime Minister as the ex-officio Chairman, one deputy-Chairn appointed by the PM and some full time members.

  • The tenure of its members and deputy chairman is not fixed. There is no definition of its members also. They are appointed by the Government on its c discretion. The number of members can also change according to the wishes of Government.


  • Assessment of material, capital & human resources of the country.

  • Formulation of plans for the most effective & balanced utilization of country’s resources.

  • To determine the various stages of planning and to propose the allocation of resources on the priority basis.

  • To act as an advisory body to the Union Government.

  • To evaluate from time to time the progress achieved in every stage of the plan and also to suggest remedial measures.

  • To advise the Centre and the State Governments from time to time on special matters referred to the Commission.

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General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Strength of State Legislatures)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Strength of State Legislatures)

S.No. State/UTs Legislative Assembly Legislative Council
1. Andhra Pradesh 294 90
2. Arunachal Pradesh 40 Nil
3. Assam 26 Nil
4. Delhi 70 Nil
5. Bihar 243 75
6. Jharkhand 81 Nil
7. Goa 40 Nil
8. Gujarat 182 Nil
9. Haryana 90 Nil
10. Himachal Pradesh 68 Nil
11. Jammu & Kashmir 76 36
12. Karnataka 224 75
13. Kerala 140 Nil
14. Madhya Pradesh 230 Nil
15. Chhattisgarh 90 Nil
16. Maharashtra 288 78
17. Manipur 60 Nil
18. Meghalaya 60 Nil
19. Mizoram 40 Nil
20. Nagaland 60 Nil
21. Orissa 147 Nil
22. Pondicherry 30 Nil
23. Punjab 117 Nil
24. Rajasthan 200 Nil
25. Sikkim 32 Nil
26. Tamil Nadu 234 Nil
27. Tripura 60 Nil
28. Uttar Pradesh 403 104
29. Uttrakhand 70 Nil
30. West Bengal 294 Nil

Offices under Government of India

President of India

  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad
  • Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
  • Dr. Zakir Hussain
1967-1969 (Died)
  • Varahagiri Venkata Giri
1969-1969 (Acting)
  • Justice Md. Hidayatullah
1969-1969 (Acting)
  • Varahagiri Venkata Giri
  • Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
1974-1977 (Died)
  • B. D. Jatti
1977-1977 (Acting)
  • Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
  • Giani Zail Singh
  • R. Venkataraman
  • Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma
  • K. R. Narayanan
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
  • Smt. Pratibha Devi Singh Patil
  • Sri Pranab Mukherjee
2012-Till Date

Vice-Presidents of India

  • Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
  • Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
  • Varahagiri Venkata Giri
  • Gopal Swarup Pathak
  • B. D. Jatti
  • Justice Md. Hidayatullah
  • R. Venkataraman
  • Dr. Shanker Dayal Sharma
  • K. R. Narayanan
  • Krishan Kant
1997-2002 (Died)
  • Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
  • Md. Hamid Ansari
2007 -Till Date

Prime Ministers of India

  • Jawaharlal Nehru
1947-1964 (Died)
  • Gulzari Lal Nanda
1964-1964 (Acting)
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri
1964-1966 (Died)
  • Gulzari Lal Nanda
1966-1966 (Acting)
  • Indira Gandhi
  • Morarji Desai
  • Indira Gandhi
1980-1984 (Died)
  • Rajiv Gandhi
  • Chandra Shekhar
  • P. V. Narasimha Rao
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee
1996-1996 (For 16 Days)
  • H. D. Deve Gowda
  • I. K. Gujral
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee
  • Dr. Manmohan Singh
  • Dr. Manmohan Singh
  • Narendra Modi
2014-Tilld Date

Deputy Prime Ministers of India

  • Sardar Patel
  • Morarji Desai
  • Devi Lal
  • Devi Lal
  • LK. Advani

Finance Ministers of India


General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Table of Precedence)

General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Table of Precedence)

1. President

2. Vice-President

3. Prime Minister

4. Governors of States within their respective States

5. Former Presidents

5A. Deputy Prime Minister


  • Chief Justice of India

  • Speaker of Lok Sabha


  • Cabinet Ministers of the Union

  • Chief Ministers of States within their respective States

  • Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission

  • Former Prime Ministers

  • Leaders of Opposition in Rajya Sabha and lok Sabha

7A. Holders of Bharat Ratna decoration


  • Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and High Commissioners of Commonwealth countries accredited to India

  • Chief Ministers of States outside their respective States


  • Judges of Supreme Court


  • Chairperson, Union Public Service Commission

  • Chief Election Commissioner

  • Comptroller and Auditor General of India


  • Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha

  • Deputy Chief Ministers of States

  • Deputy Speaker, Lok Sabha

  • Members of the Planning Commission

  • Ministers of State of the Union (and any other Minister in the Ministry of Defence for defence matters)


  • Attorney General of India

  • Cabinet Secretary

  • Lieutenant Governors within their respective Union Territories

12. Chiefs of Staff holding the rank of full General or equivalent rank

13. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary accredited to India


  • Chairmen and Speakers of State Legislatures within their respective States

  • Chief Justices of High Courts within their respective jurisdictions


  • Cabinet Ministers in States within their respective States

  • Chief Ministers of Union Territories and Chief Executive Councillor, Delhi within their respective Union Territories

  • Deputy Ministers of the Union

16. Officiating Chiefs of Staff holding the rank of Lieutenant General or equivalent rank


  • Chairman Central Administrative Tribunal

  • Chairman, Minorities Commission

  • Chairperson, National Commission for scheduled tribes

  • Chief Justices of High Courts outside their respective jurisdictions

  • Puisne Judges of High Courts within their respective jurisdictions


  • Cabinet Ministers in States outside their respective States

  • Chairman and Speakers of States Legislatures outside their respective States

  • Chairman, Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission

  • Deputy Chairmen and Deputy Speakers of State Legislatures within their respective States

  • Ministers of States within their respective States

  • Ministers of Union Territories and Executive Councilors, Delhi, within their respective Union Territories

  • Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Chairman of Delhi Metropolitan Council within their respective Union Territories


  • Chief Commissioners of Union Territories not having councils of ministers, within their respective Union Territories

  • Deputy Ministers in States within their respective states

  • Deputy Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Deputy Chairman of Metropolitan Council, Delhi, within their respective Union Territories


  • Deputy Chairmen and Deputy Speakers of State Legislatures, outside their respective State Legislatures, outside their respective states

  • Ministers of state in states outside their respective states

  • Puisne Judges of High Courts outside their respective jurisdictions

21. Members of Parliament

22. Deputy Ministers in States outside their respective States


  • Army Commanders/Vice-Chief of the Army Staff or equivalent in other services

  • Chief Secretaries to State Governments within their respective States

  • Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities

  • Commissioner for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes

  • Members, Minorities Commission

  • Members National Commission for Scheduled Castes

  • Members, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

  • Officers of the rank of full general or equivalent rank

  • Secrataries to the Government of India (including officers holding this office ex-officio)

  • Secretary, minorities Commission

  • Secretary, Scheduled Castes Commission

  • Secretary, Scheduled Tribes Commission

  • Secretary to the President

  • Secretary to the Prime Minister

  • Secretary, Rajya Sabha/Lok Sabha

  • Solicitor General

  • Vice-Chairman, Central Administrative Tribunal

24. Officers of the rank of Lieutenant General or equivalent rank


  • Additional Seretaries to the Government of India

  • Additional Solicitor General

  • Advocate Generals of States

  • Chairman, Tariff Commission

  • Charge d’ Affairs and Acting High Commissioners a pied and ad interim

  • Chief Ministers of Union Territories and Chief Executive Councillor, Delhi, outside their respective Union Territories

  • Chief Secretaries of State Governments outside their respective States

  • Deputy Comptroller and Auditor General

  • Deputy Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Deputy Chairman, Delhi Metropolitan Council, outside their respective Union Territories

  • Director, Central Bureau of Investigation

  • Director General, Border Security Force

  • Director General, Central Reserve Police

  • Director Intelligence Bureau

  • Lieutenant Governors outside their respective Union Territories

  • Members, Central Administrative Tribunal

  • Members, Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission

  • Members, Union Public Service Commission

  • Ministers of Union Territories and Executive Councillors, Delhi, outside their respective Union Territories

  • Principal Staff Officers of the Armed Forces of the rank of Major General or equivalent rank

  • Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Chairman of Delhi Metropolitan Council, outside their respective Union Territories


  • Joint Secretaries to the Government of India and officers of equivalent rank.

  • Officers of the rank of Major-General or equivalent rank

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 27

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 27

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. A 680-hertz wave with a wavelength of 1/2 meter travels in air with a speed of----

a. 680 m/s
b. 6800 m/s
c. 340 m/s
d. 3400 m/s

2. You hear a lot of static from your radio. Is the static you hear more likely to result from receiving FM or AM radio waves?

a. FM
b. AM
c. Neither produces any static.
d. Both produce equal amounts of static.

3. You see lightning flash in the distance, and hear the thunder 10 seconds later. Assuming that sound travels at 340 m/s through the air, how far away was the lightning strike?

a. 34 meters
b. 3.4 meters
c. 340 meters
d. 3.4 km

4. Measured in volts. This is the difference in electric potential between two points.

a. Potential Difference
b. Electric Current
c. Electrical resistance
d. Superconductor

5. Measured in ohms. A material resists the flow of electric charge, while permitting some flow of electric charge.

a. Potential Difference
b. Electric Current
c. Electrical resistance
d. Superconductor

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

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Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 27

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-1) - Set 27

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. Which of the following is not a member of O.E.C.D.?

(a) Japan
(b) Germany
(c) Canada
(d) India

2. Flanders industrial region is renowned for----

(a) Iron & steel industry
(b) Car manufacturing
(c) Textile manufacturing
(d) Electronics

3. Which country of the world is the largest exporter of cardamom?

(a) India
(b) China
(c) Brazil
(d) Sri Lanka

4. Hudson-Mohawk valley is located in----

(a) France
(b) UK
(c) USA
(d) Canada

5. Largest fresh water storage of the world lies in----

(a) Greenland
(b) Antarctica
(c) Himalayas
(d) Alps

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017


Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 26

Model Questions for Scientific Assistant (IMD) Exam (Paper-2) PHYSICS - Set 26

Write and Discuss Your Answer with Q.No in Comment Box at the Bottom of Post

1. A longitudinal wave travels in a material and creates a local region with lowered pressure.

a. Infrasonic
b. Ultrasonic
c. Compression
d. Rarefaction

2. An input signal is used to change the frequency of a carrier wave. The carrier wave now has regions of higher frequency and regions of lower frequency.

a. Carrier wave
b. Modulation
c. Amplitude Modulation
d. Frequency Modulation

3. Two sound waves of slightly different frequencies interfere and cause a throbbing effect.

a. Natural frequency
b. Resonance
c. Beats
d. Carrier wave

4. When the frequency of an oscillating force matches the natural frequency of the elastic body on which the force is applied, we have...

a. Resonance
b. Beats
c. Carrier wave
d. Modulation

5. An input signal is used to change the amplitude of a carrier wave. The carrier wave now has regions of higher frequency and regions of lower frequency.

a. Carrier wave
b. Modulation
c. Amplitude Modulation
d. Frequency Modulation

Study Kit for SSC Scientific Assistant (IMD) EXAM 2017

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