Sample Materials of SSC CGL (Tier -3) Study Kit
Topic: Restructuring of the U.N.O. to reflect present
UNO-the predecessor of the League Nations was a product of
World War II and was conceived by the Allied European power on 24th October,
1945 to make the world a safer and better place. In other, words, it will act as
a con science-keeper of the International community. The four freedoms-Freedom
of speech and expression, Freedom of ever, person to worship God in his own way,
Freedom from want and Freedom from fear as declared by Roosevelt formed the
bases on which the United Nations was built. The UN remained for its first 25
years at the centre of the international stage. Each time a new crisis arose it
was to the UN that the world turned to play a leading role in finding a
solution. By the 1960s and later in the 1970s most states no longer looked to
the United Nations for effective action.
The superpowers preferred to deal with each other directly
outside the ambit of the UN on all important bilateral issues. Therefore the UN
role in maintaining world peace came to be increasingly marginalized. However,
since the late 1980s, the UN has to occupy the centre stage once again following
sudden unexpected changes in the world scene: the greatly improved relations
between the superpowers and their joint interest in making the UN work in
solving regional conflicts and the gradual disintegration of the socialistic
block and withering away of East-West tension. By the last decade of this
century, it is the US which dominates the UN once again. Much of the
disillusionment that is often expressed about the failure of the organization is
due to the high expectation placed on its fragile shoulders. However, three of
its characteristics have a global significance.
First, the revolutionary developments in Eastern and Central
Europe have given powerful expression to two of the cardinal principles of the
charter of the United Nations:First, the revolutionary developments in Eastern
and Central Europe have given powerful expression to two of the cardinal
principles of the charter of the United Nations: self-determination of peoples
and respect for human rights. Second, it has been strikingly demonstrated that a
status -quo based primarily on the military factor is bound to prove unstable.
Third, the wider and saner concept of security, encompassing all its dimensions,
which has begun to emerge, is precisely the one the United Nations has been
expounding all these years.
Role of UNO: A Critical Appraisal
The UN played an active role in promoting apartheid from
South Africa and India’s role in this respect is commendable. Through its
trusteeship and non-self-governing provisions, the United Nations has provided
the basic machinery needed for the most important as well as the biggest
revolutions of our time decolonization. Through its principles of trusteeship,
it has been able to maintain the international accountability needed for the
transformation of the colonial states into independent ones. The United Nations
has given international protection and material assistance to millions of
refugees and has aided children and other target groups to meet their special
needs. Although the wide gap between rich and poor has not been bridged but it
has made a significant contribution to the growth of the idea that development
is an international responsibility It is however in the field of functional
co-operation that the United Nations record has been most impressive. The work
of UN agencies in such areas as international payments. The UN role in promoting
human rights has been limited largely to rule making. Violations of UN standards
in this regard have been innumerable. Nevertheless, through discussions,
declaration reports and international covenants sponsored by the UN, the
organization seems to have promoted the cause of human rights as never before in
the past. On the question of handling of international disputes, in several
cases definite and permanent settlements were reached. For example, the former
Soviet Union withdrew its troops from Iran in 1946 and later again from
Afghanistan in 1988. The Indonesian crisis was ultimately resolved with the
establishment of an independent state of Indonesia in 1950 and similarly the
Namibian dispute was finally resolved in the establishment of an independent
Namibian state in 1990. In several cases it has; in effect defaulted for example
Korea in 1950 and the Gulf War in 1991.
On the issue of Disarmament it has played a threefold role
in different negotiations.
1. It has taken the initiative in starting negotiations and
has been mainly responsible for keeping them going.
2. It has established procedures of consultation through which the concerned
states have been brought together to exchange and discuss proposals.
3. It has made disarmament the concern of all states, enabling the smaller and
less powerful states to become so well informed about the problems that it has
been able to exert an increasing influence on the actual working of
Although the UN charter does not mention disarmament in its
basic purposes and principles, disarmament and arms control negotiations hosted
by the United Nations have been carried on since its inception. Recently held
comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in September 1996 and approval of all the
nations of the world except India, Belgium and Libya are advancing the effort of
the UN towards disarmament. To promote disarmament in this renewed trend, today
remains the greatest challenge for the UN Peace-keeping has been one of the most
significant innovations under the UN command, to help contain and resolve
conflict between hostile state, and sometimes between antagonistic forces within
a single state. It is a technique pioneered by the UN-the soldier as a catalyst
for peace rather than as a instrument of power. Around the world, respect for
the UN’s peace-keeping activities is growing.
In 1988 and 1989 alone there were five new operations. There
is a growing demand for peace-keeping forces to perform an increasing variety of
functions which will require new combinations of defense, police and civilian
personnel peace-keeping operations make up part of what called “preventive
diplomacy” keeping involved intervention by the United Nations, in conflicts
that were marginal to the cold-war. For preventive diploma- to succeed, the two
most powerful UN members, the erstwhile Soviet Union and the United States, had
to agree or at least keep hands off UN military actions. Recent experiences
suggest that UN peace-keeping operations should be undertaken only when they are
Plagued by paucity of funds, with no military muscle of its
own and constitutionally disabled from taking firm political decisions, the UN
has been reduced to being a toothless tiger. Successive efforts by the UN to
take action to meet the crisis in Somalia, Rwanda and Bosnia were brought to
nougat. It was only in Iraq that the so-called UN initiative bore some fruit.
There have been disquieting developments on the peacekeeping front too. Since
1990 large portions of more than 50,000 forces engaged in peacekeeping
operations have not only been contributed by the big powers, especially the USA,
but they have also heavily armed and as the Somalian experience suggests, been
engaged in all-out combat.
\From the Bosnian case onwards, the US seems to be adopting a
course of action independent of the UN through NATO. Recently West Asian crisis
was resolved through intervention of US. Moreover, the UN has exercised very
little control over the field commanders in such operations. The USA has all
along refused to put her forces under UN control. The delays by members of the
UN to pay their dues and the absence of any coherent policy have led to a lot of
uncertainty regarding the feature of these operations. The UN civil services
were largely dominated by the whites and they had set up the UN salary scales in
their own images which the average member countries could ill-afford. The
permanent members of the Security Council armed with veto can nullify any action
against them but also of the other recalcitrant states against whom it has not
been possible to impose decisions. UN is also under threat from regional blocks
European Union, ASEAN. The idea of world government cannot be ruled out. Such a
government can have all that the UN lacks today political powers, military
muscle and economic strength and could be the most effective and meaningful
successor to the UN.
The New International Economic Order as envisaged by the UN
way hack m \<)74 is nowhere in sight and the gap between the rich and poor
countries are steadily accelerating. However, the ten-point declaration of the
first ever UN sponsored World Summit for Social Development at Copenhagen on 6
March 1995 contains nothing to tackle the developing countries problems of
poverty, unemployment and debt.
Revamping UNO: With the disintegration of the Soviet Union
and the ending of cold war, the UN made valiant efforts to unravel regional and
global conflicts and to lead the international community towards constructive
co-operation in meeting the social and economic needs of humanity at large.
Notwithstanding those welcome developments an unprecedented
crisis on the question of structural changes and reform has engulfed the UN
since the mid-eighties. No, doubt every institution has to change to cope with
an ever-changing environment and new challenges and opportunities.
The UN is no exception to this general pattern of
institutional adaptation. At the present juncture, change and adaptation have
become imperative for the UN because of the sweeping dimensions of the recent
changes in the world and the rapidity with which they have followed each other.
Recommendations of the Working Group (1994)
1. About the reform in the UN Security Council, it has
recommended a small increase in the number of members of Security Council. Many
members of this working group have supported an increase of two in the number of
2. Regarding the criteria for inclusion, it recommended (i)
contributions to UN efforts in preserving world peace and (ii) independent
foreign policy. Recommendations of the Expert Group under Ford Foundation (1994)
3. Increase in the Security Council permanent membership from
5 to 10 and Security Council membership from 15 to 23.
4. Restricting the veto powers of the permanent members to
issues concerning peace keeping and peace enforcement operations.
5. Setting up a team to keep track of the developments and
warn the UN about exploding situations.
6. Constituting a rapid deployment force to tackle sudden
eruption of conflicts.
7. Raising funds through taxes and fees.
8. Constitution of new Economic Council to coordinate the
work carried out by UN agencies in monetary and trade policies. Declaration of
the 50th Aanniversary of the UN (1995)
9. It reiterates the UN (1995) to save succeeding generations
from the Scourge of war. It promises to give to the twenty first century a
United Nations equipped, financed and structured to serve effectively the people
in whose name it was established.
10. It recognizes the need to reform the UN to expand the
Security Council and to continuously review its working methods to enhance its
representative character, efficiency and transparency. 11. On self
determination, the declaration clearly warns that this cannot be seen as
authorization to actions that would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the
territorial integrity of political unity of sovereign and independent states.
12. On terrorism it expresses the resolve to defeat the
threats to states and people posed by terrorism in all its forms and
manifestations like transactional organised crime, illegal, production and trade
in amiss and drug trafficking.
13. On human rights, the declaration resolves to promote and
protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms which are inherent to all
human beings. It recognizes that democracy, human rights and development are
interrelated and mutually reinforcing.
14. On non-proliferation and disarmament, it supports efforts
on arms control, limitation and no-proliferation of nuclear weapons and other
weapons of mass destruction.
15. It advocates promoting methods and means for the peaceful
settlement of disputes and enhancing the capabilities of the UN in preventive
diplomacy, peace-keeping and peace-building.
16. On development, investment and technology transfer, it
resolves to promote an open and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system
and a framework for investment, transfer of technology and knowledge as well as
enhanced co-operation in areas of development.
17. On environment and sustainable development, it recognizes
that economic development, social development and environmental protection are
inter dependent and mutually, reinforcing components of sustainable development.
18. Renner’s World watches Report on Peace-keeping the UN and
the international community will have to discuss and define a set of criteria
which will trigger appropriate peace-keeping action if the UN is to be turned
into peace-maker of first recourse, rather than peace-keeper of last resort.
19. Establishment of an early warning office that
continuously monitors potential trouble spots around the world.
20. Setting up permanent and conflict resolution committees
in each region of the world to defuse tensions before violence erupts. Deploying
Peach-Keepers Pro-actively to Prevent Aggression.
21. Creation of a two-tier UN peace force consisting of a
permanent, individually, recruited, non-combat race, as well as a specially
trained back-up army made up of troop of contingents available to the Security
Council on short notice. Establishing a regular annual peace-keeping budget with
a reserve fund to cover unforeseen expenses.
A stronger research and advisory staff within the
secretariat for monitoring political situation all over the world might be
needed to keep potential conflict situations under constant review.
1. The Security Council should activate the procedures
incorporated in chapter VI, whenever necessary rather than try to intervene
after the outbreak of actual war (Iran-Iraq), when it is extremely difficult to
stop the fighting. The Secretary General should be accorded a stronger position
and better means to exercise authority. Permanent political offices in key
regions, military observer teams, fact finding missions and military collective
security forces could constitute a global emergency problem.
2. The UN should maintain and extend the sub-commission on
Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities Activities and effort
should be made to revive the post of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
3. A global law enforcement role for the UN should be
elaborated focusing on the role of sanctions and military enforcement measures.
The potential of the Military Staff Committee of the Security Council should be
4. The role of UN peace-keeping forces could also be used to
ensure that countries are not destabilized across frontiers. Future peacekeeping
should normally be authorized and controlled by the Security Council.
5. They should play a neutral political role within the
country where they are operating. The possibility of a permanent peace-keeping
fund should be explored.
6. Veto decisions of Security Council should be used only on
vital issues and procedural matters should be immune from it. The veto should be
eliminated with respect to the admission of new members and the peaceful
settlement of disputes.
7. The declining role of General Assembly called for a system
of weighted voting’s, hut it is difficult; to implement. If no change is made
the effort will be to reduce the influence of the Assembly and to enhance the
role of the Security Council.
8. To make the International court of justice more effective
it is desirable that the members should agree to submit their legal disputes to
9. Other changes include the setting up a permanent fund to
make its financial position secure and to improve the capacity of the United
Nations to coordinate the large number of social and economic activities now
being carried out by its organs and specialized agencies.
The United Nations, in order to live up to the challenges of
tomorrow, needs certain changes towards anticipation of potential conflicts,
promotion of negotiation and the formulation of general norms the international
behaviour and the growing needs of regional co-operation. In fine, the UN should
strive to become far more effective than it is today in the words of its
charter: a centre for harmonizing the interests of nations.