(Syllabus) Haryana PSC: VETERINARY SURGEON

(Syllabus) Haryana PSC: VETERINARY SURGEON

MILK AND MEAT HYGIENE, FOOD SAFETY AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Milk hygiene in relation to public health. Microbial flora of milk and milk products. Sources of milk contamination during collection and transport of milk and processing of dairy products. Control of milk and milk product contamination. Hygienic handling management of dairy equipment Quality control of milk and milk products. Milk hygiene practices in India and other countries. Legislation and standards for milk and milk products. Milk as a source of disease transmission.

Pathological conditions associated with the transport of food animals. Elements of meat inspection. Hygiene in abattoirs. Ante-mortem inspection of meat animals. Humane slaughter of animals. Postmortem inspection of meat animals. Methods of inspection of meat. Rigor mortis and examination of lymph nodes. Speciation of meat. Health implications of emergency and causality slaughter. Hygienic disposal of unsound meat. Inspection of poultry and aquatic foods (fish) for human consumption. Occupational health hazards in meat processing plants. Meat as a source of disease transmission. Food safety, definition, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system and chemical and microbial toxicities associated with milk, meat and aquatic foods. Risk analysis: assessment and management and food safety measures. Toxic residues (pesticides, antibiotics, metals and hormones) and microbial toxins in food and their
health hazards. Types of bio-hazards. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures in relation to foods of animal origin and aquatic foods. International and national food safety standards {Office International des Epizootics (OIE), World Trade Organisation (WTO), Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) and Codex Alimentarius}.

VETERINARY EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ZOONOSES

Definitions and aims of epidemiology. Factors influencing occurrence of livestock diseases and production. Ecological basis and natural history of diseases. Sources, Storage, retrieval and representation of disease information/data. Epidemiological hypothesis. Epidemiological methods: descriptive, analytical (observational), experimental, theoretical (modeling), serological and molecular. Survey of animal diseases. Surveillance and monitoring of livestock diseases. Animal disease forecasting. Strategies of disease management: prevention, control anderadication. Economics of animal diseases. National and International regulations on livestock diseases. Role of OIE and laws on international trade on animals and animal products

Definition, history and socio-economic impact of zoonotic diseases. Classification of zoonoses and approaches to their management. New, emerging, re-emerging and occupational zoonoses. . Role of domestic, wild, pet and laboratory animals and birds in transmission of zoonoses. Zoonotic pathogens as agents of bio-terrorism. Reservoirs, clinical manifestations 52 in animals and humans, and the management of the following zoonoses: rabies, Japanese encephalitis, Kyasanur forest disease, influenza, anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, plague, rickettsiosis, chlamydiosis and dermatophytosis. Food borne zoonoses: salmonellosis, staphylococcosis, clostridial food poisoning, campylobacteriosis, helmintrrosis.toxoplasmosis and sarcocystosis. Veterinary Public Health Administration.

ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE

Definition, scope and importance. Ecosystem: types, structure and functions. Food chains. Bio-diversity uses, threats and conservation. Natural resources: forest, mineral, soil and watertheir uses and abuses. Environmental pollution-causes, and effects. Control measures of air, water, soil, marine, thermal and noise pollution. Nuclear hazards. Biosafety and risk assessment Environment Protection Acts and related issues. Disaster management Sources of water supply and water quality, Sources of water contamination. Bacteriology of water. Physical, chemical, microbiological and biological evaluation of water. Water purification. Disposal of sewage and farm wastes. Health implications of farm wastes. Sanitation and disinfection of animal houses. Recycling of farm wastes. Sources of air pollution within animal houses and its effect on animal health and production Ventilation and ventilation systems within animal houses and specialized laboratories. Prevention and control of air and water-borne diseases. Problems of atmospheric pollution (acid rah, depletion of ozone layer, methane production, green house effect and global warming). Tannery, wool, bone and blood meal industry pollution and its control. Stray and fallen animal management Pollution due to industrial
wastes.

VETERINARY GYNAECOLOGY

Clinical evaluation and abnormalities of reproductive tracts in domestic animals. Delayed Puberty and sexual maturity. Estrus detection. Aberrations of estrus and estrous cycle. Seasonal breeding. Pregnancy diagnosis- different methods- in different species. Superfoetation and Superfecundation. Fertility, Infertility & sterility- Anatomical, hereditary, nutritional, managerial, hormonal and infectious causes. Anoestrus, ovulatory defects and cystic ovarian degeneration. Repeat breeding: Fertilization failure, early embryonic mortality. Specific & non- specific infections affecting genital organsendometritis, cervicitis, vaginitis. Fertility parameters. Sexual hearth control and reproductive hearth management. Clinical use of hormones in female infertility. Breeding management mismating, psuedopregnancy, transmissible venereal tumor-(TVT) in bitches

Induction of estrus, Synchronization of estrus, Follicular Dynamics, Ovulation, Superovulation, and Embryo Transfer Technology. Immune-modulation for enhancement of fecundity

VETERINARY OBSTETRICS

Types and functions of placenta in different species. Diseases & accidents during gestationAbortion in domestic animals-diagnosis & control. Dropsy of fetal membranes and fetus. Fetal "mummification, maceration, pyometra and mucometra. Prolonged gestation. Teratology. Premature birth. Uterine torsion.

Cervico-vaginal prolapse. Termination of pregnancy. Parturition. Puerperium and involutionofuterusindomestic animals. Care and management of dam and newborn.

Dystocia- Types of dystocia - maternal & fetal- approach, diagnosis and treatment Epidural & other anesthesia in obstetrical practice. Obstetrical operations- rnutation, forced extractions, fetotomy and cesarean section. Injuries and diseases in relation to parturition. Postpartum diseases and complications: uterine prolapse, retention of fetal membranes, metritis, postpartum paraplegia.

Animal birth control- ovariohysterectomy and non surgical interventions

GENERAL VETERINARY SURGERY, ANESTHESIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING

General Surgery

Introduction, history, classification, surgical terminology and development of veterinary surgery. Asepsis-antisepsis, their application in veterinary surgery. Surgical risk and judgment. Management of shock, haemmorrhage. Principles of fluid therapy in surgical patients. Differential diagnosis and surgical treatment of abscess, tumors, cyst haematoma, necrosis, gangrene, bum. Wound: classification, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment; complications, their treatment and prevention.

Anaesthesiology

Preanaesthetic considerations and preanaesthetics. Anaesthesia, local analgesia/anaesthesia, General anaesthesia, anaesthetic agents (like barbiturates, dissociative agents). Inhalation anaesthesia and agents, maintenance and monitoring of general anaesthesia. Anaesthetic emergencies and their management Only awareness of neuroleptanalgesia, electroanaesthesia, acupuncture, hypothermia, muscle relaxants. Post operative pain management General principles of chemical restraint of wild / zoo animals
and anaesthesia of lab animals.

Diagnostic Imaging

Production and properties of X-rays. Factors influencing production of X-ray

Principles of viewing and interpreting X-ray films, classification of radiographic lesions. Contrast radiography: classification, materials, uses, indications and contra indications. 73 Biological effects of radiation, radiation hazards and their prevention by adoption of safety measures. Principles of ultrasonography and its applications in veterinary practice. Awareness on principles of radiation therapy, Isotopes and their uses in diagnosis and therapy; Principles and application of CT scan, MRI, echocardiography, scintigraphy, gamma camera, xeroradiography and Doppler.

REGIONAL VETERINARY SURGERY

Head and Neck

Affections of the lips and cheek and their treatment Affections of the tongue and their treatment. Treatment of cleft palate. Nasal polyps Affections and treatment of Guttural pouch, empyema, chondroids, tympanitis. Sinusitis, pus in the sinus. Affections of the horn and their treatment (avulsion of the horn, fracture of the horn, horn cancer and fissure in horn). Debudding and amputation of the hors-. Affections of the teeth and their treatment congenital abnormalities, irregular molars.(shear mouth, sharp teeth, wave form mouth, step formed mouth) dental tartar and dental caries, dental tumor and periodontal disease. Bishoping. Affections of safvary glands and their treatment (Trauma, sialoliths, salivary cysts, salivary fistula). Affections of the upper and lower jaw and treatment Affections of the ear and their treatment (haematoma and chronic otorrhoea). Eye: Csnical examination of the eye. Surgical affections of the eye: Entropion, ectropion, tumor of eye. Conjunctiva: Conjunctivitis, occlusion of nasolacrimal duct squint Eyeball: affections of the eye: hydropthalmia, glaucoma, tumors of eye, panopthalmia, injuries  and infections of anterior and posterior chambers. Worm in the eye. Affections of esophagus: choke, esophageal stenosis, dilation and diverticulum. Tracheal injuries and tracheal collapse. Affections of pharynx and larynx. Foreign bodies (Oral cavity).

Thorax and Abdomen

Fracture of rib. Perforated wounds, sternal fistula, pneumocele, traumatic pneumothorax Hernia: classification, etiology, diagnosis and treatment (urnbical, ventral, inguinal, perineal, diaphragmatic). Surgical affections of the stomach in dogs {cardia, pyloric stenosis, torsion).' Surgical affections, diagnosis and treatment of stomach in ruminants (ruminal impaction, traumatic reticulitis, diaphramatic hernia abomasal displacement, omasal impaction). Surgical affections of intestines: intestinal obstruction, intussusception, strangulation (volvulus) in 74 large and small animals. Caecal dilation, torsion. Affections of rectum: prolapse, rectal tear, anal adenitis. Congenital anomalies of colon, rectum, anus. Surgical affections of fiver, spleen. Surgical affections of kidney,ureters, urinary bladder. Urolithiasis and urethral stenosis their sequlae and surgical treatment Surgical affections of penis and sheath, affections of testicle, scrotum. Surgical affections of udder and teat Canine mammary neoplasms.

VETERINARY ORTHOPAEDICS AND LAMENESS

Body conformation of the horse in relation to lameness (trunk, fore limb and hind limb) Lameness, definition, classification and diagnosis. Shoulder slip (sweeny), bicipital bursitis, omarthritis, capped elbow, radial paralysis, carpitis. bent knee, and knock-knee. Hygroma of knee, open knee, blemished knee. Fracture of carpal bone, fracture of accessory carpal, contraction of digital flexors. Splints, sore shin, wind puffs, sesamoid iris Osstots, ringbone, quittor, side bone, Navicular disease, pyramidal disease. Laminitis, sand crack, seedy toe, fractures of third phalanx, pedal osteitis, and sole penetration. Canker, thresh and com, Monday morning disease, cording up, myositis of psoas, Mac thrombosis, Crural paralysis, subluxation of sacroiliac joint rupture of round ligament trochantric bursitis. Upward luxation fixation of patella, stringhalt, gonitis, chondromalacia of patella, rupture of tendoachilles, rupture of peroneus tertius, fibrotic myopathy and ossifying myopathy. Thoroughpin, bog spavin, spavin, curb, capped hock. Bovine lameness: contusion of sole, ulceration of sole, septic laminitis. avulsion of hoof and subluxation of patella. Interdigital fibroma, cyst sand crack, hoof deformities. Speckle joint disease (septic arthritis, osteochondritis dessicans, degenerative joint disease) in large animals and their treatment. Specific joint disease in dogs and their treatment. (Intervertebral disc protrusion, spondylosis) elbow and hip dysptasta Rupture of cruciate ligament. Fracture and dislocation. Classification and general principles or fracture repair. Application of external and internal immobilization for different bone fractures in small and. large animals. Complications of fracture healing. Affections of tendon, 75 tendon sheath, bursa and ligaments. Principles of physiotherapy, classification, scope and limitations

VETERINARY CLINICAL MEDICINE-I

(GENERAL & SYSTEMIC)

History and scope of Veterinary Medicine, Concept of animal diseases. Concepts of diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis. General systemic, states, hyperthermia, hypothermia, fever, septicemia, toxemia, shook and dehydration. Aetiology, clinical 76 manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment prevention and control of the following diseases of cattle,- buffalo sheep/goat equine, pig and pet animals. Diseases of digestive system with special reference to rumen dysfunction and diseases of stomach In nonruminants. Affections of peritoneum, liver and pancreas. Diseases of respiratory and cardiovascular systems including blood and blood forming organs. Diseases of urogenital system & lymphatic system. Emergency medtelne and critical care.

VETERINARY PREVENTIVE MEDICINE-I

(BACTERIAL, FUNGAL& RICKETTSIAL DISEASES)

Clinical manifestation, diagnosis, prevention and control of infectious diseases, namely mastitis, haemorrhagic septicaemia, brucellosis, tuberculosis, Jobne's disease. black quarter, tetanus, listeriosis, leptospirosis, campylobacteriosis, actinomycosis, actinobacillosis, enterotoxaemia, glanders, strangles, ulcerative lymphangitis, colibacillosis, fowl typhoid, putiorum disease, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, sppirochaetosis, salmonellosis, swine erysipelas. Other important bacterial diseases of regional importance (e.g. contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, contagious bovine pleuropneuonia etc.). Bacterial diseases of bio terrorism Instance - anthrax, botulism etc Chlamydosis, Q fever, anaplasmosis, Dermatphillosis, aspergillosis (brooders pneumonia), candidiasis, histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, coccidiodomycosis, mycotoxicosis, etc

VETERINARY CLINICAL MEDICINE -II

(METABOLIC & DEFICIENCY DISEASES)

Aetiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment prevention and control of metabolic disorders/ production diseases. Milk fever, acute parturient hypocalcaemia in goats, sows and bitches, osteodystrophy fibrosa, lactation tetany in mares, downer cow syndrome, ketosis, hypomagnesaemia in cattle and buffalo, azoturia in equines, hypothyroidism and diabetes in dogs. Diagnosis and management of diseases caused by deficiency of iron, copper, cobalt zinc, manganese, selenium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin A, D, E, B. complex, K and C in domestic animals and poultry. Nutritional haemoglobinuria. Diseases of neonates. Diseases of skin, musculoskeletal system, nervous system and sense organs of domestic animals. Management of common clinical poisonings. Rote of alternative/integrated/ethno veterinary medicine in animal disease management.

VETERINARY PREVENTIVE MEDICINE-II

(VIRAL & PARASITIC DISEASES)

Clinical manifestation, diagnosis, prevention and control of infectious diseases, namely foot and mouth disease, rinderpest bovine viral diarrhoea, malignant catarrhal fever, Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, enzootic bovine leucosis, ephemeral fever, blue tongue, sheep and goat pox, PPR, classical swine fever. Important exotic diseases for differential diagnosis - African swine fever, swine vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis, Rift valley fever, Aujeezky's disease. Rabies, African horse sickness, equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine rhinopneumonitis, canine distemper, Infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Newcastle (Ranikhet) disease, Merek's disease. avian leucosis, Infectious bronchitis, infectious larynotracheitis, avian encaphalomyelitis, fowl pox, infectious bursal disease, Inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardlum sypdrome. Other emerging and exotic viral diseases of global importance. Amphistomosis, fascioliosis, {Gastrointestinal nematodiasis, schistosomosis, echinococcosis, tapeworm infestations (cysticercosis), verminous broochitis, coeneurosis, trichomonosis, blood protozoan infections (trypanosomosis. theileriosis. babesiosis etc.). canine eperythrozoon infection, coccidiosis.

ANIMAL WELFARE, ETHICS AND JURISPRUDENCE

Definition of animal welfare and ethics. Human and animal welfare in relation to ecosystem and environmental factors. Role of veterinarians in animal welfare. Animal welfare organisations, Animal Welfare Board of India - their role, functions and current status. Rules, regulations, laws on animal welfare. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act, 1960 {59 of 1960). Role and function of Committee for the purpose of Controlling and Supervising Experiments in Animals (CPCSEA). Protection of wild life in nature and captivity. Protection and welfare of performing animals. Welfare of animals during transportation. Animal welfare in commercial livestock farming practices. Protection and welfare of working animate. Pet and companion animal welfare. Animal welfare during natural calamities and disaster management Legal duties of veterinarians, Forensic and State Medicine laws. Common offences against animals and laws related to these offences. Examination of living and dead animals in criminal cases. Cruelly to the animals and bestiality. Legal aspects of: Examination of animals for soundness, examination of Injuries and post-mortem examination. Causes of sudden death in animals. Collection and despatch of materials for chemical examination, detection of frauds-doping, alternation of description, bishoping etc. Cattle slaughter and evidence procedure in courts. Provincial and Central Acts relating to animals. Glanders and Farcy Act 1899 (13 of 1899). Dourine Act 1910 (5 of 1910), Laws relating to offences affecting Public Hearth. Laws relating to poisons and adulteration of drugs. Livestock Importation Act Evidence, liability and insurance. Code of Conduct and Ethics for veterinarians - the Regulations made under Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984.

ZOO/WILD ANIMAL BREEDING, NUTRITION, MANAGEMENT AND HEALTH CARE

Taxonomy of various genera of wild/zoo animals of India along with their descriptions. Ethology of wild life species. Basic principles of habitat and housing of various classes of wild and zoo animals. Population dynamics of wild animals, effective population size of wild animals in captivity/zoo/natural habitats. Planned breeding of wild animals. Controlled breeding and assisted reproduction. Breeding for conservation of wild animals. Feeding habits, feeds and feeding schedules of zoo animals. Nutrient requirements of wild animals, Diet formulation and feeding of various age groups, sick and geriatric animals. Restrain, capture, handling, physical examination and transport of wild and zoo animals. Principles of anaesthesia, anaesthetics, chemicals of restraining, common surgical Interventions. Capture myopathy. Principles of zoo hygiene, public health problems arising from zoos. Prevention, control and treatment of infectious, parasitic, nutritional and metabolic diseases in zoo and wild animals. Acts and Rules related to Zoo and wild animals. National 79 and international organisations and institutions interlinked to wild and zoo animals - rote and functioning.

PET/ ANIMAL BREEDING, MANAGEMENT, NUTRITION AND HEALTH CARE

Breeds of dogs- international pedigree breeds and those commonly seen in India. Pedigree sheet and major breed traits. Detection of oestrus and Breeding of dogs. Selecting a breed to keep, selection of a pup.

Feeding of dogs- nutritional requirements of important breeds and different age groups. Management of dogs-kennels, care of pups and pregnant bitch. Dog shows- preparation for the shows, kennel clubs, important characters for judgment. Whelping. Utility of dogsguarding, defense, patrolling, riot control, scouting, espionage, mine detection, tracking, guiding, hunting, races, retrieving, rescue, and other uses. Principles of training of dogs.

Common diseases affecting dogs (bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal, nutritional etc.) - their clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and control. Vaccination/ deworming schedules. Common surgical interventions in dogs- docking, ear cropping, nail cutting, sterilization. Common anaesthetics and anaesthesia in dogs.

Common breeds of cats, their habits, feeding, breeding and management. Common diseases of cats-their diagnosis, treatment and control. Common surgical interventions in cat. Common pet birds seen in India. Introduction to their caging, breeding, feeding, management, disease control and prevention.

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT-I

(GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND RUMINANTS)

Livestock in India- association of livestock to Indian society during vedic, medieval and modern era. Demographic distribution of livestock and role in economy. Animal holding and land holding patterns in different agro-ecologies.

Introductory animal husbandry. Common animal husbandry terms. Body conformation and identification. Dentition and ageing of animals. Transport of livestock by rail, road, air and on foot. Common farm management practices including disinfection, isolation, quarantine and disposal of carcass. Introduction to methods of drug administration. Common vices of animals, their prevention and care. Livestock production systems of different agro-climatic zones. Livestock resources and resources management Livestock
produce and products and their availability and their role in rural/urban hearth/economy. Organic livestock production.

General principles affecting the design and construction of building for housing for various livestock species. Selection of site. Arrangements of the building with special reference to Indian conditions.

Utilisation of local materials. Building materials used for construction of wall, roof and floor of animal houses, their characteristics, merits and demerits.

Demography of cattle and buffalo population. Breeds and breed descriptors of important breeds. Important traits of cattle and buffaloes. General management and feeding practices of calves, heifers, pregnant, lactating and dry animals in bulls and working animals. Draught ability of cattle and buffaloes. Raising of buffalo mates for meat production. Housing systems, layout and design of different biddings for dairy animals inducing backyard dairy and mixed farms. Routine dairy farm operations and labour management Methods of milking and precautions. Factors affecting quality and quantity of milk production. Clean max production. Dairy farm accounts and records. Concepts of input and output cost of dairy farming (small and large holdings).

Demography of sheep and goat population and their rote in economy. Breeds and breed descriptors. Important bans for meat milk and fibre. General management and feedingpractices during different stages of growth, development and production (milk, meat and wool) in small and large holdings. Breeding schedule and management of ram and buck. Weaning and fattening of lambs and kids. Glossaries of terms In wool industry. Shearing of sheep. Physical and chemical properties of wool. Impurities in wool Factors influencing the quality of wool grading. Recovery of wool wax and its use. Housing systems, layout and design of different buildings for small ruminants Judging for the quality and confirmation of body parts of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat Culling of animals. Preparation of animals for show.

Problems and prospects of dairy, meat and wool industry in India. Animal and animal products market and marketing. Animal Fairs and Melas. Animal pounds and Goshalas.

FODDER PRODUCTION AND GRASSLAND MANAGEMENT

Importance of grasslands and fodders in-livestock production. Agronomical practices for production of leguminous and non-leguminous fodders in different seasons. Soil and water conservation and irrigation drainage for fodder production. Farm, power and agroenergy. Farm machinery and equipment Harvesting and post harvest techniques "for fodder preservation. Storage of feeds and fodders. Scarcity fodders. Feed and fodder management for individual animals. Fodder production for small units through inter cropping or back yard cultivation. Recycling of animals washings and wastes in fodder production.

AVIAN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

Indian Poultry industry-brief outline of the different segments-poultry statistics.

Classification of poultry, common breeds of poultry including duck, quail, turkey & guinea fowl and their descriptions. Description of indigenous fowls.

Reproduction in fowl, male and female reproduction systems, formation of eggs, structure of eggs. Important economic traits of poultry, egg production, egg weight egg quality, growth, feed consumption and feed efficiency, fertility and hatchability, plumage characteristics and comb types. Scavenging system of management raising of chicks, scavenger feed base of village. Low input technology; backyard and semi intensive unit of various sizes; their description, management and economic achievements.

New colored feathered birds developed in public and private sectors for meat and egg production for rural poultry; their acceptability and assimilation in rural eco-system. Mixed farming and poultry raising. Concept of self-local market unit

Brooding and rearing practices used for chicken, duck, quail, turkey and guinea fowl. Economic production of chicken and other classes of poultry.

Hatching and feeding norms for different species of poultry. Marketing of poultry and poultry products. Setting of farms for different classes of poultry. Organic and hill farming.

BIO-STATISTICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATION

A. Basic Statistics:

Introduction and importance. Statistics, parameters, observation, recording and graphical representation of data Probability and probability distributions: binomial, Poisson and normal. Measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion (simple and grouped data). Moments and skewness to kurtosis. Correlation and regression. Tests of hypothesis and t Z, X2 and F tests of significance and their interrelationship. Livestock census procedure and census. Introduction to sample survey methods for livestock and livestock products. Bioassay - meaning and uses.

B. Experimental designs:

Completely Randomized Design (CRD.) and Randomized Block Design (R,B.D). Analysis of variance.

C. Computer application:

Computer and its components; Types of computers; Hardware, software, human ware and firm ware. Type of memories. Computer languages and their scope and limitations. Computer programming : Data types: Constants, variables, expressions, operations, functions, flow charts, commands, simple programs and their execution- scope and limitations. Data base management system: Storage of data, filing, retrieving, reproduction. Use of computer in animal husbandry and veterinary practices.

PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL GENETICS AND POPULATION GENETICS

History of Genetics. Chromosome numbers and types in livestock and poultry. Mitosis, Meiosis and gametogenesis. Overview of Mendelian principles; Modified Mendelian inheritance: gene interaction; multiple alleles; lethals; sex-linked, sex limited and sex influenced traits; linkage and crossing over, Mutation, Chromosomal aberrations;
Cytogenetics, Extra-chromosomal inheritance. Gene concept -classical and molecular.

Population genetics: Genetic structure of population: Gene and genotypic frequency: Hardy - Weinberg law and its application; Forces {eg Mutation, migration, selection and drift) changing gene and genotypic frequencies.

Quantitative genetics: Nature and properties; Values and means. Components of phenotypic and genotypic variance; Concept of genotype and environment interaction, Resemblance between relatives; Heritability, repeatability, genetic and phenotypic correlations.

LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY BREEDING

History of Animal Breeding; Classification of breeds; Economic characters of livestock and poultry and their importance; Breeding/Selection techniques for optimal production. Selection: Response to selection and factors affecting it; Bases of selection individual, pedigree, family, sib, progeny and combined; Indirect selection; Multitrait selection. Classification of mating systems; Inbreeding and out breeding-genetic and phenotypic consequences viz., inbreeding depression and heterosis: Systems of utilization of heterosis; Selection for combining ability; Breeding methods for the improvement of dairy cattle and buffaloes {crossbreeding, sire evaluation, field progeny testing, open nucleus breeding system (ONBS)}, sheep, goat, swine and poultry; Breed development; Conservation of germplasm, Current livestock and poultry breeding programmes in the state and country.

PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEED TECHNOLOGY

Importance of nutrients in animal production and health. Composition of animal body and plants. Nutritional terms and their definitions. Importance of minerals (major and trace elements) and vitamins in health and production, their requirements and supplementation in feed. Common feeds and fodders, their classification, availability and importance for livestock and poultry production. Measures of food energy and their applications - gross energy, digestible energy, metabolisable energy, net energy, total digestible nutrients, starch equivalent, food units, physiological fuel value. Direct and indirect calorimetry, carbon and nitrogen balance studies. Protein evaluation of feeds - Measures of protein quality in ruminants and non-ruminants, biological value of protein, protein efficiency ratio, protein equivalent, digestible crude protein. Calorie protein ratio. Nutritive ratio. Various physical, chemical and biological methods of feed processing for improving the nutritive value of inferior quality roughages. Preparation, storage and conservation of livestock feed through silage and hay and their uses in livestock feeding. Harmful natural constituents and common adulterants of feeds and fodders. Feed additives in the rations of livestock and poultry; Antibiotics and hormonal compounds and other growth stimulants, and their uses.

APPLIED NUTRITION-l (RUMINANTS)

Importance of scientific feeding. Feeding experiments. Digestion and metabolism trial. Norms adopted in conducting digestion trial. Measurement of digestibility. Factors affecting digestibility of a feed. Feeding standards, their uses and significance, merit and demerits of various feeding standards with reference to ruminants. Nutrient requirements of livestockenergy and protein requirement for maintenance and production. Methods adopted for arriving at energy and protein requirements for maintenance and production in terms of growth, reproduction, milk, meat, wool and work. Balanced ration and its characteristics. General principles of computation of rations. Formulation of rations and feeding of dairy cattle and buffaloes during different phases of growth, development and production (neonate, young, mature, pregnant, lactating and dry animals; breeding bull and working animals). Formulation of ration and feeding of sheep and goat during different phases of growth, development and production (milk, meat and wool). Use of NPN compound for ruminants.

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY

Milk Industry in India. Layout of milk processing plant and its management, Composition and nutritive value of milk and factors affecting composition of milk. Physico-chemical properties of milk. Microbiological deterioration of milk and milk products. Collection, chilling, standardization, pasteurization, homogenizatJbn, bactofugation. Principles of dehydration. Preparation of butter, paneer/channa, ghee, khoa, lassi, dahi, ice-cream, Cheddar cheese and dairy byproducts, Good Manufacturing Practices. Implementation of HACCP. Toxic/pesticides residues in milk and milk products. Packaging, transportation, storage and distribution of milk and milk products. Organic milk food products. Legal and BIS standards of milk and milk products. Sanitation in milk plant

MEAT SCIENCE

Retrospect and prospect of meat Industry in India, Structure and composition of muscle (Including poultry muscle), conversion of muscle to meat, nutritive value of meat. Fraudulent substitution of meat, preservation of meat and aquatic foods - drying, salting, curing, smoking, chilling, freezing, canning, Ip^SfatJon, antibiotic and chemicals. Ageing of meat Modem processing technologies of meat and meat products. Packaging of meat and meat products. Formulation and development of meat and sea foods -kabab, sausages, meat baiIs/patties, tandoori chicken, soup, pickles, surimi, smoked fish. Physico-chemical and microbiological quality of meat and aquatic food and food products. Basics of sensory evaluation of meat products. Nutritive value, preservation, packaging of egg and egg products. Laws governing national international trade of meat and meat products. Organic meat food products. Food products of genetically modified animal and marine origin.

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