(Guidance Programme) Combined Higher Secondary Level [CHSL] (10+2) Exam : Ratio & Proportion

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(Guidance Programme) Combined Higher Secondary Level [CHSL] (10+2) Exam : Ratio & Proportion

Ratio

The ratio of two quantities a and b is the fraction a/ b and is expressed as a : b. Here a is the first term or antecedent and b is the second term or consequent. Since the ratio expresses the number of times one quantity contains the other, it is an abstract (without units) quantity.

A ratio remains unaltered if its numerator and denominator are multiplied or divided by the same number. eg, 4 : 3 is the same as (4 × 10) : (3 × 10) ie, 40 : 30.

“A ratio is said to be a ratio of greater or less inequality or of equality according as antecedent is
greater than, less than or equal to consequent”.
• If a > b, then a : b is called a ratio of greater inequality (eg, 4 : 3, 5 : 2, 11 : 3, ...)
• If a < b, then a : b is called a ratio of less inequality (eg, 3 : 4, 2 : 5, 3 : 11, ...)
• If a = b, then a : b is called a ratio of equality (eg, 1 : 1, 3 : 3, 5 : 5, ...)

From this we find that

  • If a > b and some positive number is added to each term of a : b, then the ratio is diminished. If a > b, then (a + x) : (b + x) < a: b.
  • If a < b and some positive number is added to each term of a : b, then the ratio is increased. If a < b, then (a + x) : (b + x) < a : b.
  • If a = b and some positive number is added to each term of a : b, then the ratio is unaltered. If a = b, then (a + x) : (b + x) = a : b The price at which an article is sold is called the selling price or SP.

Kinds of Ratios

  • Duplicate Ratio : a2 : b2 is called duplicate ratio of a : b.
  • Triplicate Ratio : a3 : b3 is called triplicate ratio of a : b
  • Sub-Duplicate Ratio
  • Sub-triplicate Ratio
  • Compound Ratio :  ab : cd is the compound ratio of a : c and b : d. It is the ratio of the product of the antecedents to that of the consequents of two or more given ratios.
  • Inverse Ratio
  • Componend and Dividend

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