(Guidance Programme) Combined Higher Secondary Level [CHSL]
(10+2) Exam : Syllogism
The word ‘Syllogism’ is also referred to ‘Logic’.
Syllogism is an important section of logical reasoning and hence, a working
knowledge of its rules is required on the part of the candidate. Hence, it can
be expressed as the ‘Science of thought as expressed in language’. The questions
based on syllogism can be solved by using Venn diagrams and some rules devised
with the help of analytical ability.
With this unique characteristic, this test becomes an
instrument of teaching the candidates to follow the rules and work as per the
instructions without an error. Here, only the basic concept and rules, which
have a bearing on reasoning faculty could alone help. There are some terminology
which are used in syllogism.
It is also referred to as ‘Premises’. It is a sentence which
asserts that either a part of, or the whole of, one sets of objects-the set
identified by the subject term in the sentence expressing that sentence either
is included in, or is excluded from, another set-the set identified by the
predicate term in that sentence.
Types of Proposition
Categorical Proposition :There is relationship between
the subject and the predicate without any condition.
Example : I. All beams are logs.
II. No rod is stick.
Hypothetical Proposition: There is relationship
between subject and predicate which is asserted conditionally.
Example : I. If it rains he will not come.
II. If he comes, I will accompany him.
Disjunctive Proposition : In a disjunctive proposition
the assertion is of alteration.
Example : I. Either he is brave or he is strong.
II. Either he is happy or he cannot take revenge.
Parts of Proposition
It consists of four parts.
1. Quantifier: In quantifier the words, ‘all’, ‘no’ and
‘some’ are used as they express quantity. ‘All’ and ‘no’ are universal
quantifiers because they refer to every object in a certain set. And quantifier
‘some’ is a particular quantifier because it refers to at least one existing
object in a certain set.
2. Subject: It is the word about which something is said.