Coordinate Geometry is also called Analytical Geometry. It is that branch of
geometry in which we use two numbers called coordinates to indicate the position
of a point in a plane.
Cartesian Coordinate System
The horizontal line x´ is called the x-axis and the vertical
line y´ oy is called the y-axis and together they are called the coordinate
axes. The point of intersection of these two axes is called the origin. Let P be
any point in a plane. From P draw perpendiculars to the coordinate axes meeting
the x-axis in M and y-axis in N. Here, OM(x) is the x-coordinate or absicssa of
a point P. Similarly, ON(y) is the y-coordinate or ordinate of point P.
This position of the point P in the plane with respect to the coordinate axes
is represented by the ordered pair (x, y) and this system is called the
cartesian coordinate system.
The coordinates of the origin O are (0, 0). Also, x´ox and y´oy divide the plane
into four regions called quadrants.
1. xoy is quadrant I. Here, x-coordinate is positive and y-coordinate is
2. x´oy is quadrant II. Here, x-coordinate is negative and y-coordinate is
positive. (–, +)
3. x´oy is quadrant III. Here, x-coordinate is negative and y-coordinate is
negative. (–, –)
4. xoy´ is quadrant IV. Here, x-coordinate is positive and y-coordinate is
negative. (+, –)
(1,5) lies in first quadrant
(–2,3) lies in second quadrant
(–2, –4) lies in third quadrant
(4,–2) lies in fourth quadrant
The coordinate of origin is (0, 0).
The ordinate of every point on x-axis is 0.
The ordinate of every point on y-axis is 0.
Distance between Two Points: Let P (xl, yl) and Q (x2,y2) be any two points on
the plane, then the distance between P and Q is represented as PQ is given by
The distance of the point P(x, y) from the origin (0, 0) is
Centroid If A(xl, yl), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) are the vertices of a triangle,
then the three medians of the triangle intersect at its centroid and the
centroid divides the median in the ratio 2 : 1. A
Coordinates of the point G are given by
Area of a Triangle: If A(xl, yl), B(x2 , y2) and C(x3, y3 ) be three vertices of
a triangle ABC, then its area is given by