Current Affairs for SSC CGL Exams - 04 November 2020
Confessions in narcotics cases
- The Supreme Court has ruled on a long-pending question of law on whether statements recorded under Section 67 of the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act can be admissible as confessional statements during criminal trials.
- The majority judgment ruled that statements recorded by officers under the NDPS Act cannot be treated as confessions.
Significance of the Supreme Court judgment:
- One argument was that since the officers under Section 53 of the NDPS Act are not defined as “police officers” but are given the powers of an “officer-in-charge of a police station”, confessions given to them should be admissible in evidence. The officers in the specialised anti-drug probe agency, NCB, can be deputed from various departments of the government including Central Excise, Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Customs.
- The contrary opinion states that safeguards available for accused in international and Indian law, including the Constitution also extend to accused under the NDPS Act. This includes any statement given by a person to a police officer cannot be considered as a confession and cannot be enough to prove guilt.
- Over 30 years, multiple court judgments have seen contrary opinion on this point of law – whether officers invested powers under the NDPS Act can be considered “police officers” and therefore, whether statements given to them by accused persons can be considered as confessions.
World in liquidity trap, which calls for synchronized fiscal push
- IMF chief argued that world is in a liquidity trap with policy interest rates staying below 1% in60% of global economy and 97% of advanced economies.
- Liquidity trap is a situation when expansionary monetary policy (increase in money supply) does not increase interest rate, income and hence does not stimulate economic growth.
- It is a situation in which general public is prepared to hold on to whatever amount of money is supplied, at a given rate of interest.
- Some of the indicators of liquidity trap: low interest rates, recessionary trends, Wage Remain Stagnant etc.
Americans across 50 states set to choose 46th president
- On November 3, Americans across 50 states and the District of Columbia will vote for their 46th president.
Difference between India and US:
1. Election Procedure: In India:
- Indirect election (Proportional Representation with means of a single transferable vote).
- President is elected by the electoral college of Elected members of both house of the parliament.
- Elected members of state legislatures Elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Delhi and Puducherry.
2. In USA:
- Indirect Election: Citizens cast their ballot in everystate to elect members of the electoral college(popular vote) who in turn cast electoral votes todetermine the President.
Term of the office: In India:
- Holds the office for 5 years and is eligible for re-election any number of times.
- Holds the office for 4 years and he can seek re-election only once.
3. Powers and Functions:
- President is only the Head of State. His powers and functions can be studied under following heads: Executive, legislative, Financial, Judicial, diplomatic, Military, Emergency.
- Also, President enjoys certain Veto powers that includes: Absolute veto, suspensive veto and pocket veto.
- President is both the head of state and head of government.
- He is responsible for the execution and enforcement of the laws created by Congress.
- President also appoints the heads of more than 50 independent federal commissions.
- President has the power either to sign legislation into law or to veto bills enacted by Congress.
::SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY::
- Recently, director-general of Indian Council of Medical Research said that Kawasaki disease, in children during recovery phase of COVID-19, is not reported in India.
- Kawasaki disease causes blood vessels to become inflamed, almost always in young children. It's one of the leading causes of heart disease in kids.
- Scientists haven’t found an exact cause for Kawasaki disease. It might be linked to genes, viruses, bacteria, and other things around a child, such as chemicals and irritants.
Draft Spacecom Policy notified private sector space players are liable for damages to space objects in space.
- Indian private sector players wanting to provide communication service within and outside India using a space-based asset are liable for damages caused to other space objects in outer space and its environment, states the Draft Space Based Communication Policy of India-2020 (Spacecom Policy-2020) and draft Norms, Guidelines and Procedures for implementation of Spacecom Policy-2020 (Spacecom NGP-2020).
- According to the drafts released by the Department of Space (DOS), private players can provide communication services using space based assets within and outside India.
- As regards any damages that may occur to other space objects in the outer space the private service providers are liable for financial damages and they have to take care of that by providing financial guarantee or insurance cover.
- The extent of financial guarantee or the insurance cover will be determined by the Indian authorising/licensing body taking into account the risks involved in nature and operations of that space object in outer space.
Draft Spacecom Policy-2020:
- According to the draft Spacecom Policy-2020 any communication service within the Indian territory from space can be carried out only with an authorised space asset.Only Indian entities are eligible for obtaining space asset authorisation.
- As per the draft policy, any Indian entity can seek authorisation for use of space asset for communication within Indian territory.
- This authorisation addresses use of Indian orbital resource, non-Indian orbital resource, use of owned or leased space asset.
- The draft policy also proposes to allow Indian companies to establish ground system within Indian territory for monitoring and controlling space asset.