General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Types Of Vitamins)

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General Knowledge for SSC Exams (Types Of Vitamins)

Water

  • Important in digestion, transportation, excretion and to regulate body temperature (body contains 65% water).

Roughage

  • Fibrous material present in the cell wall of plants.
  • Mainly contains cellulose.
  • It doesn’t provide energy but only helps in retaining water in the body.
  • One of the common source is Daliya, which we eat in our homes.
  • Blood is a fluid connective tissue.
  • Its quantity is 6.8 litres in man and 500 ml less in woman.
  • Constitutes 6-8% of body weight and has a pH of 7.4.

Blood Cells

They are of 3 types

Red Blood Corpuscles (Rbcs)

  • Also called erythrocytes, disc-shaped, no nucleus, contains a pigment called Haemoglobin, which gives blood its red color and transports oxygen and carbon di oxide.
  • Manufactured in Red Bone marr
  • Life is of 120 days.
  • No. of RBCs is 4.5-5 million/cubic mm. of blood.

White Blood Corpuscles (WBCs)

  • Also called leucocytes, rounded, with a nucleus and far less numerous than RBCs (8,000 per cubic mm. of blood).
  • Manufactured in Red Bone marrow.
  • Act as the soldiers of body’s defence system.

Platelets

  • Also called thrombocytes and are about 2,50,000 per cubic mm. of blood.
  • Manufactured in Red Bone marrow.
  • Help the blood to clot.

Blood Groupings

  • Father of Blood Grouping: Karl Landsteiner.
  • He discovered A, B and 0 blood groups.
  • Decastello and Sturle discovered AB blood group.

Blood Group                 Can donate to                          Can receive from
A A,                             AB A,                                         O
B B,                             AB B,                                          O
AB AB A,                    B,                                                AB, O
O                                 A, B,                                            AB, O O

RH Factor

  • It is a blood antigen found in RBC.
  • A person can be Rh+ or Rh– depending upon the presence of Rh factor in RBC.
  • Avery important point is Rh+ can receive blood from both Rh+ and Rh– but Rh– can receive blood from Rh– only.
  • In world population, Rh+ are 85% and Rh- are 15%.
  • Blood transfusion technique was developed by James Blundell.

Nervous System

  • The nerves, the brain and the spinal cord constitute the nervous system.

  • Nervous system controls and regulates the activities of all the other systems of the body.

Brain

  • Brain is the main organ of the nervous system. It consists of cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata.

Cerebrum

  • It controls the voluntary actions and is the seat of intelligence.

  • Its outer grey matter is the most important part.

Cerebellum

  • It is concerned with equilibrium of the body and co-ordination of muscles.

Medulla Oblongata

  • Lowest part of the brain and is connected with the spinal cord.

  • It controls the involuntary actions..

Reflex Action

  • It can be defined as the spontaneous response to the external stimuli.

  • It is not co-ordinated by the brain but by the spinal cord.

Sense Organs

  • There are several organs in the body that receive the external and internal stimuli and convey it to the brain and spinal cord.

  • The main sense organs are Eye, Ear, Skin, Tongue, Nose, etc.

Digestive System

  • Digestion involves splitting of food molecules by hydrolysis into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract.

  • Man and other animals have holozoic nutrition (i.e. take solid form of food).

  • Digestion process takes place in following five steps

(i) Ingestion of food
(ii) Digestion of food
(iii) Absorption of digested food
(iv) Assimilation
(v) Egestion of unwanted food

Ingestion of Food

  • Food is taken through mouth cavity.

  • It is masticated by teeth and swallowed.

  • Ingestion takes place in buccal cavity.

  • Salivary glands lubricate the food and binds the food particles together to form bolus.

  • Salivery gland have starch splitting enzyme ptyalin.

Digestion of Food

  • Process of converting complex, insoluble, food particles into simple solube and absorbable form is called digestion.

  • In mouth, salivary amylase acts on starch.
    Starch Maltose
    Complexform Simpleform

Digestion in Stomach

  • The food passes down through the oesophagus into stomach.

  • Now food is mixed with gastric juice and hydrochloric acid which disinfects the food and creates acidic medium.

  • Pepsin digests proteins and converts them into peptones.

  • Renin converts milk to curd.

  • Digested food now is called chyme.

Digestion in Small Intestine

  • Chyme moves to duodenum.

  • Food is mixed with bile (liver) to breakdown fats into smaller globules.

  • Trypsin acts upon proteins and breaks them into peptides.

  • Amylase converts starch into simple sugar.

  • Lipase converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

  • Food passes into ileum and mixes with intestinal juice.

  • Maltase converts maltose into glucos

  • Lactase converts lactose into glucose.

  • Sucrase converts sucrose into glucose.

  • Trypsin digests the peptides into amino acids.

  • Food now is called chyle.

Absorption and Assimilation of Digested Food

  • Ileum’s internal surface has finger-like folds called villi.

  • There is a dense network of blood capillaries and lymph capillaries in each villus.

  • It helps in absorption of food.

Egestion of Unwanted Food

  • Digested food passes into large intestine.

  • Large intestine cannot absorb food, but absorbs much of the water.

  • The remaining semi solid waste is called faeces and is passed into rectum.

  • It is expelled out through anus.

Dentition

  • There are 32 permanent teeth in man (2123/2123 - Dental Formula).

  • These are of four types
    o Incisors : (for cutting) four in numbers.
    o Canines : (for tearing) two in numbers.
    o Premolar : (for grinding) four in numbers.
    o Molars : (for grinding) six in numbers.

  • In children, there are 20 teeth, which are temporary in nature (2120/2120 – Dental Formula).

  • In elephants the tusks are the incisors of upper jaw.

  • Maximum number of teeth are present in horse and pig.

  • Hardest part in the body is tooth enamel.

  • Main bulk of tooth is formed of dentine.

Digestion System

Gland Juice Enzyme/s  Edible Substance Products formed
Saliva, Salivary Salivary Starch Maltose (disaccharide)
glands amylase   via dextrins
Gastric juice; Pepsinogen Protein Peptones via acid metaproteins
gastric glands (inactive) +   and proteoses
chiefly of fungus HCIPepsin    
  (active) Prorennin Milk protein Milk clot in the form of calcium
  (inactive) + Caseinogen paracaseinate and whey protein
  H+Rennin   later digested by pepsin fatty
  (active)   acids and glycerol
  Lipase Light fat like cream  
Pancreatic Protein splitting    
juice trypsinogen Protein Polypeptides via metaproteins
(pancreatic (inactive) +    
acid in exocrine enterokinase    
part of pancreas) from duodenaln mucosaTrypsin Chymotrypsinogen (inactive) + trypsin ® Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Carbohydrate splitting Pancreatic amylase (amylopsin) Maltase Lactase Sucrase Fat splitting Lipase Polypeptide Starch Maltose Lactose Sucrose Fat amino acids Maltose (sugar) via dextrin Glucose + glucose Glucose + galactose Glucose + fructose Fatty acids + glycerol
Bile, Liver No enzyme; instead contains bile salts which (i) activate lipases (ii) emulsify fats - for better action of lipase (iii) render fat soluble substances water soluble    
Gland Juice Intestinal juice (succros entericus); intestinal glands Enzyme/s Protein splitting Erepsin: a group of peptidases Carbohydrate splitting Maltase Lactase Sucrase Fat splitting Lipase Edible Substance Polypeptides and short peptides Maltose Lactose Sucrose Fat Products formed Amino acids 2 molculess of glucose glucose + galactose glucose + fructose Fatty acids + glycerol

Animal Diseases, Human Diseases And Deficiency Diseases Animal Disease

Disease Pathogen Responsible
Food and mouth disease Virus
Rinderpest (cattle plague) Virus
Blue Tongue Virus (transmitted by mosquitoes)
Cow po (Vaccinia) Vaccinia Virus
Ranikhet Disease Virus
(New castle disease)  
March’s Disease Virus
(Fowl paralysis)  
Fowl plague Virus
Fowl pox Virus
(Avian diphtheria)  
Tuberculosis Bacteria (transmitted by infected milk and milk products)
Anthrax (splenic fever) Anthrax Bacillus
Black quarter (Black leg) Bacteria: Clostridium chauvoei
Mastitis Bacteria: Streptococci and Staphylococci
Johne’s Disease Bacillus paratuberculosis
Brucellosis Bacteria
(Bang’s Disease) Brucella
Salmonellosis Salmonella dublin and S. typhimurium
Foot rot Bacteria: Fusiformis nodosus
Haemorrhagic Disease Bacteria
(Bovine pasteurellosis; Pasteurella
Shipping fever; shipping Multocida
pneumonia)  
Fowl typhoid Salmonella gallinarum
Ringworm Mould (fungus) Microsporon, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton
Trichomoniasis Protozoan; Trihomonas foetus (Transmitted through coitus)
Coccidiosis protozoan: Eimeria bovis
Trypanosomiassis Protozoan: Trypanosoma congolense
Babesiosis Protozoan: Babesia bovis (Transmitted by tick)
“Snoring disease” Trematode (fluke) Schistosoma nasale
Liver rot Liver fluke Fasciola hepatica
Measly beef Tapeworm: Taenia Saginata

Human Diseases

Diseases caused by Protozoa :

Disease Affected organ Parasites Carrier Symptoms
Malaria RBC and Liver Plasmodium Female Anophelies Fever with shivering
Pyorrhoea Gums Entamoeba gingivelis - Bleeding from gums
Sleeping sickness Brain Trypanosoma Tse-Tse flies Fever with severe sleep
Diarrhoea Intestine Entamoeba Histolytica House flies Mucous and Diarrohea with blood
Kala-ajar Bone marrow Leismania donovani Sand flies High fever
Filaria - Wuchereia Culex Swelling in legs, testes and
    baoncrofti moszuitoes other parts of body

Diseases caused by Bacteria :

Disease Affected organ Name of Bacteria Symptoms
Tetanus Nervous system Clostridium tetani High fever, spasm in body, Closing of jaws etc
Cholera Intestine Vibrio cholerae Continuous stool and vomiting
Typhoid Intestine Salmonella typhosa High fever, headache
Tuberculosis Lungs Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Repeated coughing
Diphtheria Respiratory tube Corynebacterium diphtheriae Difficulty in respiration and suffocation
Plague Lungs, area between the two legs Pasteurella pesties Very high fever, muscular
Whooping cough Respiratory system Hemophilis pertusis Continuous coughing
Pneumonia Lungs Diplococcus pneumoniae High fever, swelling in lungs
Leprosy Skin leprae Nervous System affected Nervous System Spots on body, nerves
Gonorrhea Urinary Path Neisseria gonorrhoeae Swelling in urinary path.
Syphilis Urinary path Treponema pallidum Wounds in urinogenial tract

Diseases caused by Viruses :

Diseases  Affected organ Name of virus Symptoms
AIDS Defensive system (WBC) HIV Immune system of body became weak
Dengue fever Whole body particularly head, eyes and joints.   Pain in eyes, muscles, head and joints
Polio Throat, backbone nerve Pilio virus and intestine cells are destroyed. Fever, body pain, back bone
Influenza (flu) Whole body restlessness. Mixo virus Suffocation, sneezing,
Chicken pox Whole body Variola virus body. High fever, redish eruption on
Small pox Whole body Varicella virus Light fever, eruption of bile on body.
Goitre Parathyroid gland mouth with fever. - Difficulty in opening the
Measles Whole body Morbeli virus Redish eruptions on body.
Trachoma Eyes - Reddish eyes, pain in eyes.
Hepatitis Liver - Yellow urine, Eyes and skin become yellow.
Rabies Nervous system Rabies virus with sever headache & The patient becomes mad
Meningitis Brain - High fever.
Herpes Skin Herpes Swelling in skin.

Diseases caused by Fungus :

Diseases Name of fungi Symptoms
Asthama Aspergillus fumigatus Obstructs the functions of lungs.
Athlete’s foot Tenia pedes Cracking of feet
Scabies Acarus scabies White spots found on the skin
Baldness Taenia capities Hair of the head falls
Ringworm Trycophyton lerucosum Round red spot on the skin

Deficiency Diseases:

Deficiency Disease  Causes/Symptoms
A. Protein Kwashiorkor Children become irritable, cease to grow, lose weight, skin pigmented, potbelly due to retention of water by the cells (oedema), mental retardation
Protein Shortage Marasmus Muscle degeneration, thinning of limbs and abdominal wall, ribs prominent, skin pigmentation and oedema absent
B. Minerals lron deficiency Deficiency of haemoglobin in RBCs, persons look
(a) Iron anaemia pale, lose appetite and fatigue easily
(b) Potassium (k) Hypokalemia Loss of K in severe vomiting and acute diarrhoea. Rise in heart-beat rate, kidney damage, weakness and paralysis of muscles
(c) Sodium (Na) Hyponatremia Loss of Na, dehydration, low blood pressure, loss of body weight
(d) Iodine (I) Simple goitre Enlargement of thyroid due to low iodine content in drinking water
(e) Calcium (Ca) Rickets and Osteomalacia Refer vitamin D deficiency
C. Vitamins    
(a) Vitamin A (i) Xerophthalmia or ‘dry eye’ Lachrimal glands stop producing tears leading to blindness
  (ii) Dermatosis Dry and scaly skin
  (iii) Night blindness Inability to see in the dark or in dim light
(b) Vitamin    
B-Complex    
B1 (thiamine) Beri-beri Extreme weakness, swelling and pain in the legs, loss of appetite, headache, enlarged heart and shortness of breath
B2 (riboflavin) Ariboflavinosis Blurred vision, buring and soreness of eye and tongue, cracking of skin at angle of mouth
B12 (cobalamin) Pernicious or megaloblastic anaemia Reduction in haemoglobin content due to disturbance of RBC formation in bone marrow
Niacin Pellagra Tip and lateral margins of tongue, mouth and gums become red, swollen and develop ulcers. skin red and itchy on hands, feet, elbows, wrists and knees.
(c) Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Scurvy pain in joints, loss of weight, anaemia, gums become spongy, swollen and bleed easily, teeth losses and fragile
(d) Vitamin D Rickets Occurs in children. Softness and deformities of bones bow legs and pigeon chests due to loss of bone Ca
  Osteomalacia Occurs in adults, softness and pain in bones which fracture easily, bending of vertebral column

Common Body Disorders

  • Allergy : A special reaction to a certain substance such as pollen or certain foods (causing sneeze, skin rashes, etc.) Allergy can be from any material, even by colours, etc.

  • Arthritis : Inflammation of joints.

  • Asthma : A respiratory disorder caused by narrowing of bronchial tubes. It can be caused by infection or due to allergy.

  • Bronchitis : Inflammation of bronchial tubes caused by bacteria or virus.

  • Cancer : An abnormal growth of body cells, often resulting in a malignant tumour.

  • Diabetes Mellitus : Excess sugar in the body, when the body is not able to control the level of blood sugar due to malfunctioning of Islets of Langerhans of pancreas when it produces inadequate insulin.

  • Epilepsy : Unwarned and periodic loss of consciousness along with convulsions, due to nervous disorders.

  • Mumps : An acute infection particularly in children and young adults in which there is swelling of parotid gland associated with high fever.

  • Hepatitis : Any infectious or inflammatory disease of the liver commonly identified by its primary symptoms of jaundice.

  • Hernia : A weakness of the muscle surrounding an organ allowing it to bulge through, often found in the groin.

  • Jaundice : Excesssive bilirubin (present in bile juice secreted by liver) in the blood, causes yellowing of eyes, skin and even urine.

  • Leukemia: Blood cancer.

  • Measles: A contagious disease caused by virus, red rashes appear on the body along with fever.

  • Migraine: A type of a headache followed by disturbed vision and speech accompanied by nausea.

  • Pellagra: A disease caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B4 (Niacin). Its symptoms are 3D’s: Diarrhoea, Dermatosis, Dementila

  • Osteomalacia: A disease caused by shortage of Vitamin D (calciferol) which results in softening of bones, frequent fractures and bending of the backbone.

  • Pleurisy : Inflammation of the membrane that covers the lungs and lines the chest cavity.

  • Rabies : A viral disease transmitted by the saliva of infected animals, symptoms include convulsions and repulsion to water (hydrophobia).

  • Ringworm : A skin disease causing circular swellings on the skin. Transmitted through air-borne pores and contact with infected person.

  • Slipped disc : A painful condition in which a cartilage disc in the spine is displaced putting pressure on the nearest nerve.

  • Small pox : A contagious viral disease, common among children, symptoms are rashes on skin. This disease has been eradicated from the whole world due to the efforts of WHO.

  • Thrombosis : Formation of blood clot in a blood vessel or in the heart causing death.

  • Ulcer : An inflamed open sore on the skin, or on the membrane of a body cavity. Peptic ulcer is a condition in which ulcer is there in the food pipe causing burning sensations.

Common Drugs

  • Anaesthetics : Drugs that block sensory nerves and make the patient fully unconscious to prevent him from feeling pain. In case of local anaesthesia a particular area is made senseless temporarily.

  • Analgesics : Drugs used to prevent or relieve pain like aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid).

  • Antibiotics : Drugs used to prevent growth of body germs and to destroy them as soon as possible. Most common drugs under this category are penicillin, tetramycetin, etc.

  • Antihistamines : These drugs are used to relieve symptoms of asthma, hay fever and other allergies.

  • Antipyretics : Drugs used- to lower body temperature.

  • Hormones : Drugs used to combat hormone deficiency that causes diseases. Drugs like insulin or adrenaline come under this category.

  • Narcotics : Drugs that deaden the nervous system and prevent a person from feeling pain, Eg : Opium and its derivatives such as codeine, heroin, morphine, etc.

  • Sedatives : Drugs used to induce sleep.

  • Tranquillizers : Drugs that calm nervous system and prevent worry, tension, etc.
     

Nuclear/Atomc Research Centre

Name Place
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, near Mumbai, M.S.
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research Kalpakkam, T.N.
Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, M.P.
Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre Kolkata
Atomic Minerals Directorate for  
Exploration and Research Hyderabad
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Kolkata, W.B.
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Mumbai, Maharashtra

Atomic Research Reactors

1. Apsara
2. Cirus
3. Zerlina
4. Purnima I
5. Purnima II
6. Dhruwa
7. Kamini

Space Centres

Name Place
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station Near Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
Satish Dhawan Rocket Launching Centre Shriharikota, A.P.
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Bangalore, Karnataka
pace Application Centre Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Centre Arvi, Near Pune, Maharashtra

Computer

  • A computer is an information-processing and information-accessing tool. This means that a computer accepts some information or data from the outside world. It processes it to produce a new information.
  • Meaning of Computer: The word computer has derived from an English word ‘Compute’, which means ‘to calculate’.
  • Computer is an electronic device which processes the input informations according to the given set of instructions, called program.
  • Blaise Pascal had developed the first mechanical calculator in 1642 AD, which is called ‘Pascalene’.
  • British scientist Charles Babbage was the first person to conceive an automatic calculator or a computer in 1833. He is called the ‘Father of modern computer’.
  • The credit of developing first computer program goes to Lady Ada Augusta, a student of Babbage.
  • Herman Holorith prepared an electronic tabulating machine in 1880, which was automatically functional with the help of Punch Card. This Punch Card is used in computer even today.
  • Howard Ekin developed the first mechanical computer ‘Mark-I’ in 1937.
  • J.P. Ekart and John Moschley invented world’s first electronic computer ‘ENIAC-1’ in 1946 and paved the way for first revolution in the field of calculating machine or computer. Electronic Valve or Vaccum Tube was used as a switch in the computer.
  • John Van Newman invented EDVAC (Electronic Descrete Variable Computer) in 1951, in which he used Stored Program. The credit of using Binary System in computers also goes to him. Indeed Mr. Newman contributed most in the development of computer and thus gave a right direction to the Computer Revolution (Second Revolution).

Super Computers developed in the World

 Name  Manufacturer
CRAY KIS CRAY K Research Co., USA
Deep Blue IBM Co., USA
Blue Gene IBM Co., USA
COSMOS Cambridge University, UK

Super Computers developed in India

 Name  Manufacturer
FLO SOLVER NAL, Bangalore
PACE DRDO
PARAM10000 C-DAC, Pune
CHIPP-16 C-Dot, Bangalore
MULTIMICRO IIS, Bangalore
MACH IIT, Bombay

Five Generations of Computer:

Generation Period Main Electronic Components Main Computers
I 1940-52 Electronic Valve Vaccum Tube EDSAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC
II 1952-64 Transistor IBM-700, IBM-1401, IBM-1620, CDC-1604, CDC-3600, ATLAS, ICL-1901
III 1964-71 IC (Integrated Circuit) IBM-360, IBM-370, NCR-395, CDC-1700, ICL-2903
Generation Period Main Electronic Components Main Computers
IV 1971-Still LIC (Largely Integrated Circuit) APPLE, DCM
V Resarch is on Optical Fibre  

Types of Computer : According to size and capacity, there are four types of Computer:

Micro Computer : These computers are used by individual, thus also called PC or Personal Computer. These days PCs are largely used for domestic and official purposes etc.

Mini Computer : This type of computer is comparatively larger than that of micro computer. This is 5 to 50 times more powerful than that of a Micro Computer.

Main Frame Computer : These are large sized computers. By Time Sharing and Multi Tasking techniques, many people rather more than 100 people can work at a time on different terminals of this computer.

Super Computer : These are very powerful computers and have more storage capacity. These are the most expensive and the fastest computers, able to process most complex jobs with a very high speed.

Quantum Computer : The development of this type of final stage. Probably Quantum Computers will be more advanced than that of human brain. In Quantum Computers, Q-Bit will be used in line of Binary Bits.

Programming Languages of different generations:

Generation Languages
1st Generation (1940-52) FORTRAIN-i
2nd Generation (1952-64) FORTRAIN-ii, ALGOL-60, COBOL, LISP
3rd Generation (1964-71) PL/I, ALGOL-W, ALGOL-68, Pascal, SIMULA-67, APL, SNOBOL, 4 BASIC, C
4th Generation (1971-till date) CLUE, ALFARD, UCLID, Reformed Pascal, MODULA, EDA, ORACLE
5th Generation (For future) Artificial Intelligence Languages.

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